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Added lines 208-209:
Note - the diagram to the left is called a schematic - it shows the electrical layout (as opposed to the physical layout) of the components. For a good rundown on reading and understanding schematics, see here: http://www.beavisaudio.com/techpages/SchematicToReality/
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Next, check out [[Switches| this lab]].
to:
Next, check out [[Switches| this lab]].
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!! Testing the Meter
to:
!! Testing the Meter 
[-by Deqing Sun-]

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%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure continuity'%[[Attach:meter_leads2.jpg|Attach:meter_leads2.jpg]]
to:
%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure continuity'%[[Attach:meter_leads2.jpg|Attach:meter_leads2.jpg]]\\
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%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='multimeter hold function'%[[Attach:meter_press_hold.jpg|Attach:meter_press_hold.jpg]]
to:
%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='multimeter hold function'%[[Attach:meter_press_hold.jpg|Attach:meter_press_hold.jpg]]\\
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%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='Your multimeter is working if this happens'%[[Attach:meter_cont.jpg|Attach:meter_cont.jpg]]
to:
%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='Your multimeter is working if this happens'%[[Attach:meter_cont.jpg|Attach:meter_cont.jpg]]\\
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%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='If it's not working press the leads in and try again'%[[Attach:meter_leads.jpg|Attach:meter_leads.jpg]]
to:
%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='If it's not working press the leads in and try again'%[[Attach:meter_leads.jpg|Attach:meter_leads.jpg]]\\
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[[<<]]
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[[<<]]
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!! Testing the Meter

Before you get started, it's a good idea to make sure your meter is working.  This is a particularly good idea if you're using a meter that lots of other people use, such as the ones at ITP.

# Insert the two probes. Insert the Black the probe in “COM” jack. This is the COMmon, or ground, connection. The Red probe should be in the “V” jack. This connection is for measuring voltage. It can also be used to measure resistance in Ohms, or frequency in megaHertz, on the meter shown here.

%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure continuity'%[[Attach:meter_leads2.jpg|Attach:meter_leads2.jpg]]
[-Ready-]

2. Turn the function knob to Diode/Continuity Function and switch the meter on. If the word “Hold” on the screen, press the hold button once to disable the hold function. This function is used to hold a value onscreen after you remove the probes from a circuit. The “1.” on left picture means the value is out of range now.

%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='multimeter hold function'%[[Attach:meter_press_hold.jpg|Attach:meter_press_hold.jpg]]
[-Release the hold function-]

3. Touch the tips of the probes together. The meter will beep and the display value should be less than 0.01. If it works, congratulations! you have a usable meter. If not, try to push the plug of the probes to improve the contacts. In many cases the failure is caused by loose contact of the jacks.

(:table width=80% border=0:)
(:cellnr:)
%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='Your multimeter is working if this happens'%[[Attach:meter_cont.jpg|Attach:meter_cont.jpg]]
[-A working multimeter-]
(:cell:)
%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='If it's not working press the leads in and try again'%[[Attach:meter_leads.jpg|Attach:meter_leads.jpg]]
[-If it's not working press the leads in and try again-]
(:tableend:)


[[<<]]
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'''Continuity''' is simply whether or not there is a connection between two points.  You can use it to find with connections on a switch or pushbutton are connected when you press the button. You can also use it to measure whether there's a break in a wire, or whether a given material conducts electricity.  Set your meter as shown here, and try touching the leads together.  The meter should beep. 
to:
'''Continuity''' is simply whether or not there is a connection between two points.  You just used this function to test your meter.  Now you'll use it to test a conductor. 

You can use the continuity check
to find with connections on a switch or pushbutton are connected when you press the button. You can also use it to measure whether there's a break in a wire, or whether a given material conducts electricity.  Set your meter as shown here, and try touching the leads together.  The meter should beep. 
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%hspace=5 alt='LED with potentiometer schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_pot_sch.png 
to:
%hspace=5  height=200 alt='LED with potentiometer schematic'%[[Attach:breadboard_LED_pot_sch.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_pot_sch.png]]
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%hspace=5 alt='LED in series schematic' width=240%[[Attach:leds_series_sch.png|Attach:leds_series_sch.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 height=200 alt='LED in series schematic' width=240%[[Attach:leds_series_sch.png|Attach:leds_series_sch.png]]
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%hspace=5 alt='LED in parallel schematic'%[[Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png|Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 height=200 alt='LED in parallel schematic'%[[Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png|Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png]]
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[[Attach:metering_amps_sch.png |Attach:metering_amps_sch.png]]

to:
%height=200 %[[Attach:metering_amps_sch.png |Attach:metering_amps_sch.png]]

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%hspace=5 alt='LED and switch schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_switch_sch.png 
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%hspace=5 height=200 alt='LED and switch schematic'%[[Attach:led_switch_sch.png|Attach:led_switch_sch.png]]
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%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator schematic'%[[Attach:5v_reg_sch.png |Attach:5v_reg_sch.png ]]
to:
%hspace=5 height=200 alt='5v regulator schematic'%[[Attach:5v_reg_sch.png |Attach:5v_reg_sch.png ]]
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%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.png
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%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator schematic'%[[Attach:5v_reg_sch.png |Attach:5v_reg_sch.png ]]
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Note how the long leg, or '''anode''', od the LED goes to voltage, and the short leg, or '''cathode''', goes to ground.
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(:toggle question8 init=hide show='I give up, tell me' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=question8 border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#e1e7f1<<
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(:toggle question9 init=hide show='I give up, tell me' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=question9 border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#e1e7f1<<
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If you measure the resistance of a '''diode''' (not shown here), you may see a number flash briefly on the meter, then disappear. This is because diodes ideally have little or no resistance once voltage is flowing through them, but have what's called a '''forward bias''', a minimum voltage needed to get current flowing. Before you reach the forward bias voltage, the diode's resistance is ideally infinite.  After you reach it, the resistance is ideally zero.  There are no ideals in electronics, however,so you will see a voltage drop across a diode when you measure it.
to:
If you measure the resistance of a '''diode''' (such as the LED shown here), you may see a number flash briefly on the meter, then disappear. This is because diodes ideally have little or no resistance once voltage is flowing through them, but have what's called a '''forward bias''', a minimum voltage needed to get current flowing. Before you reach the forward bias voltage, the diode's resistance is ideally infinite.  After you reach it, the resistance is ideally zero.  There are no ideals in electronics, however, which is wny you see a resistance value flash briedly as the meter meets the diode's forward bias.
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Did you get a negative voltage?  why?

(:toggle question6 init=hide show
='I give up, what should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
to:
Did you get a negative voltage?  Why would that happen?

(:toggle question6 init
=hide show='I give up, why?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
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Connect the board to your power supply and press the switch. It will illuminate the LED. Let go of the switch and it will turn the LED off again. By pressing the switch you are completing a circuit and allowing the resistor and LED to begin consuming electricity. The resistor is very important in this circuit as it protects the LED from being over-powered, which will eventually burn it out. A typical LED operates at a voltage of 2.0-2.6 volts (V) and consumes approximately 20 milliamps (mA). The resistor throttles the 5 volts coming from your voltage regulator and reduces the voltage to a level that is safer for the LED to consume. The higher the resistor value, the less electricity that will reach the LED. The lower the resistor value (with 0 ohms being no resistor at all), the more electricity that will reach the LED.

Now, while playing with the switch, measure the voltage across the switch as you did in the last step, both in the on position and the off position. Measure the voltage across the LED and the resistor as well.  Does the total resistance across all the components add up to the voltage between power and ground on your board? Remember, in any circuit, all of the voltage must be used up.  If the voltage across all the components doesn't add up, that indicates to you that some of the electrical energy is getting converted to light, heat, and other forms of energy. No component is 100% efficient, so there's always some loss.
to:
Connect the board to your power supply and press the switch. It will illuminate the LED. Let go of the switch and it will turn the LED off again. By pressing the switch you are completing a circuit and allowing the resistor and LED to begin consuming electricity. The resistor is very important in this circuit as it protects the LED from being over-powered, which will eventually burn it out. A typical LED operates at a voltage of 2.0-2.6 volts (V) and consumes approximately 20 milliamps (mA). The resistor reduces the energy coming from your voltage regulator and reduces  it to a level that is safer for the LED to consume. The higher the resistor value, the less electricity that will reach the LED. The lower the resistor value (with 0 ohms being no resistor at all), the more electricity that will reach the LED.

Now, while playing with the switch, measure the voltage across the switch as you did in the last step, both in the on position and the off position. Measure the voltage across the LED and the resistor as well.  Does the total resistance across all the components add up to the voltage between power and ground on your board? Remember, in any circuit, all of the voltage must be used up.

(:toggle question7 init=hide show='Why did I get
the result that I did?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=question7 border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#e1e7f1<<
If the voltage across all the components doesn't add up, that indicates to you that some of the electrical energy is getting converted to light, heat, and other forms of energy
. No component is 100% efficient, so there's always some loss.
>><<


 
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(:toggle question8 init=hide show='I give up, tell me' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=question8 border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#e1e7f1<<
The remaining energy is lost as heat generated from the components
>><<

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(:toggle question8 init=hide show='I give up, tell me' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=question8 border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#e1e7f1<<
They most likely will not light up. Each LED needs about 2V to readh its forward bias and turn on.  If you have three in series, and a 5-volt supply,each is getting less than the 2V it needs to turn on.
>><<


Changed lines 101-102 from:
If you measure the resistance of a '''diode''' (not shown here), you may see a number flash briefly on the meter, then disappear. This is because diodes ideally have little or no resistance once voltage is flowing through them, but have what's called a '''forward bias''', a minimum voltage needed to get current flowing. Before you reach the forward bias voltage, the diode's resistance is ideally infinite.  After you reach it, the resistance is ideally zero.  There are no ideals in electronics, however, which is why you saw a voltage drop across the diodes in the circuits above.
to:
If you measure the resistance of a '''diode''' (not shown here), you may see a number flash briefly on the meter, then disappear. This is because diodes ideally have little or no resistance once voltage is flowing through them, but have what's called a '''forward bias''', a minimum voltage needed to get current flowing. Before you reach the forward bias voltage, the diode's resistance is ideally infinite.  After you reach it, the resistance is ideally zero.  There are no ideals in electronics, however,so you will see a voltage drop across a diode when you measure it.
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Did you get a negative voltage? That means you placed the red lead on the point of lower voltage, and the black lead on the point of higher voltage.  In other words, you '''reversed the polarity'''.
to:
Did you get a negative voltage?  why?

(:toggle question6 init=hide show='I give up, what should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=question6 border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#e1e7f1<<
That means you placed the red lead on
the point of lower voltage, and the black lead on the point of higher voltage.  In other words, you '''reversed the polarity'''.
>><<

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%lfloat height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure resistance'%[[Attach:multimeter_resistance.png|Attach:multimeter_resistance.png]]\\
to:
%lfloat height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure resistance'%[[Attach:multimeter_resistance.jpg|Attach:multimeter_resistance.jpg]]\\
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The circuit shown is not complete.  The resistor connecting the LED to ground has been removed to measure its resistance. To measure resistance of a component, you must remove it from the circuit.

If you measure the resistance of a diode, you may see a number flash briefly on the meter, then disappear. This is because diodes ideally have little or no resistance once voltage is flowing through them, but have what's called a '''forward bias''', a minimum voltage needed to get current flowing. Before you reach the forward bias voltage, the diode's resistance is ideally infinite.  After you reach it, the resistance is ideally zero.  There are no ideals in electronics, however, which is why you saw a voltage drop across the diodes in the circuits above.
to:
The circuit shown is not complete.  The resistor connecting the LED to voltage has been removed to measure its resistance. To measure resistance of a component, you must remove it from the circuit.

If you measure the resistance of a '''diode''' (not shown here), you may see a number flash briefly on the meter, then disappear. This is because diodes ideally have little or no resistance once voltage is flowing through them, but have what's called a '''forward bias''', a minimum voltage needed to get current flowing. Before you reach the forward bias voltage, the diode's resistance is ideally infinite.  After you reach it, the resistance is ideally zero.  There are no ideals in electronics, however, which is why you saw a voltage drop across the diodes in the circuits above.
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%lfloat height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure resistance'%[[Attach:multimeter_resistance.jpg|Attach:multimeter_resistance.jpg]]\\
to:
%lfloat height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure resistance'%[[Attach:multimeter_resistance.png|Attach:multimeter_resistance.png]]\\
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%lfloat height=300 alt='correct probe settings for measuring resistance of a resistor'%[[Attach:measuring_resistance.jpg|Attach:measuring_resistance.jpg]]\\
to:
%lfloat height=300 alt='correct probe settings for measuring resistance of a resistor'%[[Attach:measuring_resistance.png|Attach:measuring_resistance.png]]\\
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Now add an LED and a 220-ohm resistor to the breadboard like so:
to:
Now add an LED and a 560-ohm resistor to the breadboard like so:
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Connect a pushbutton, a 220-ohm resistor and two LEDs in series from power to ground like so (remember, long leg  of the LED (anode) goes to voltage, short leg (cathode) goes to ground):
to:
Connect a pushbutton, a 560-ohm resistor and two LEDs in series from power to ground like so (remember, long leg  of the LED (anode) goes to voltage, short leg (cathode) goes to ground):
Changed lines 251-252 from:
Solder hook-up wires to the pot leads as shown here. Then connect the pot to an LED and a 220-ohm resistor using the following circuit:
to:
Solder hook-up wires to the pot leads as shown here. Then connect the pot to an LED and a 560-ohm resistor using the following circuit:
Changed lines 261-263 from:
As you turn the potentiometer from one end to the other, measure the voltage at the center position.  The pot is acting as a '''voltage divider''', dividing the 5V into two parts.  As the voltage feeding the LED goes up or down, the LED gets brighter or dimmer.  The 220-ohm resistor in the circuit protects the LED from overvoltage when the resistance between the pot's 5V lead and its center lead is 0 ohms. 

to:
As you turn the potentiometer from one end to the other, measure the voltage at the center position.  The pot is acting as a '''voltage divider''', dividing the 5V into two parts.  As the voltage feeding the LED goes up or down, the LED gets brighter or dimmer.  The 560-ohm resistor in the circuit protects the LED from overvoltage when the resistance between the pot's 5V lead and its center lead is 0 ohms. 

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%lframe width=100px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg"resistors"]] | [-220-ohm resistors-]
to:
%lframe width=100px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg"resistors"]] | [-220-ohm resistors (anything from 100 to 1-kilohm will do)-]
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Try measuring the reistance across your hand.  Set the meter really high, perhaps 2Megaohms Do you get anything?  Why or why not?  Make your palm sweaty and try again.  What happened?

to:
Try measuring the reistance across your hand.  Set the meter really high, perhaps 20 Megaohms  Do you get anything? 

(:toggle question4 init=hide show='I give up, what should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=question4 border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#e1e7f1<<
You should get a resistance in the 2-20 megaohm range
>><<

Make your palm sweaty, or lick it, and try again.  What
happened?

(:toggle question5 init=hide show='I give up, what should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=question5 border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#e1e7f1<<
You should get a lower resistance, perhaps 0.2 megahoms or so.
>><<

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If you did get continuity, then your meter is broken, or you have metal skin.
to:
If you did get continuity, then your meter is broken, or you accidentally touched the two leads together somehow.
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Deleted lines 78-79:

From here on out, diagrams will show the DC power supply and voltage regulator version, but feel free to use the Arduino version instead.
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From here on out, diagrams will show the DC power supply and voltage regulator version, but feel free to use the Arduino version instead.
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 From here on out, diagrams will show the DC power supply and voltage regulator version, but feel free to use the Arduino version instead.

to:

From here on out, diagrams will show the DC power supply and voltage regulator version, but feel free to use the Arduino version instead.
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<<<<<<<
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=======
 From here on out, diagrams will show the voltage regulator setup, but feel free to use the Arduino version instead.
>>>>>>>

to:

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<<<<<<<
 From here on out, diagrams will show the DC power supply and voltage regulator version, but feel free to use the Arduino version instead.
=======
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to:
>>>>>>>
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Next, check out [[Switches| this lab]].
to:
Next, check out [[Switches| this lab]].
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Here is the Arduino version:
to:
The Arduino version of the board is shown at left, below, and the DC power supply and regulator at right.
Deleted lines 75-76:
Here is the version with a DC power jack and 7805 regulator:
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to:
 From here on out, diagrams will show the voltage regulator setup, but feel free to use the Arduino version instead.
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[[<<]]
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%lfloat height=200 alt=7805 breadboard setup'%[[Attach:7805_bb.png|Attach:7805_bb.png]]\\
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%rfloat height=200 alt=7805 breadboard setup'%[[Attach:7805_bb.png|Attach:7805_bb.png]]\\
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[[<<]]
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Here is the Arduino version an LED and 220-ohm resistor is shown on the breadboard as well:
to:
Here is the Arduino version:
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!! Board setup

For the rest of this lab, you'll need a breadboard connected to a +5 volt power supply. You can use an Arduino as your power supply, if it's connected to a USB power supply or a DC power supply,or you can solder together a DC power jack as shown in the Soldering lab, and use a 9-12V DC power supply and a 7805 voltage regulator. The voltage regulator will take the DC power supply's voltage and convert it to 5 volts DC.

Here is the Arduino version an LED and 220-ohm resistor is shown on the breadboard as well:

%lfloat height=200 alt=Arduino breadboard setup'%[[Attach:Arduino_bb.png|Attach:Arduino_bb.png]]\\
[-Arduino used to supply  5 volts to the breadboard-]

Here is the version with a DC power jack and 7805 regulator:

%lfloat height=200 alt=7805 breadboard setup'%[[Attach:7805_bb.png|Attach:7805_bb.png]]\\
[-DC power supply with 7805 voltage regulator used to supply  5 volts to the breadboard-]


[[<<]]
----

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(:toggle question1 init=hide show='What should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
to:
(:toggle question1 init=hide show='I give up, what should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
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(:toggle question2 init=hide show='What should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
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(:toggle question2 init=hide show='I give up, what should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
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(:toggle question3 init=hide show='What should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
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(:toggle question3 init=hide show='I give up, what should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
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(:toggle continuitybox init=hide show='What should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=continuitybox border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#e1e7f1<<
to:
(:toggle question1 init=hide show='What should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=question1 border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#e1e7f1<<
Changed lines 49-50 from:
Try measuring the continuity across your hand.  Do you get anything?  Why or why not? You probably don't because the resistance across your skin is so high that it doesn't register as a continuous conductor.  It can conduct small amounts of current though.  You don't want your body to carry high amounts of current or voltage though, because it can damage or kill you.
to:
(:toggle question2 init=hide show='What should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=question2 border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#e1e7f1<<
If the two holes were in
the same row (or in the same column, on the side of the board) then you would get continuity and the meter would beep. If they were in different rows, then it would not beep.
>><<

Try measuring the continuity across your hand.  Do you get anything?  Why or why not?

(:toggle question3 init=hide show='What should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=question3 border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#e1e7f1<<
You probably don't because the resistance across your skin is so high that it doesn't register as a continuous conductor
.  It can conduct small amounts of current though.  You don't want your body to carry high amounts of current or voltage though, because it can damage or kill you.

If you did get continuity, then your meter is broken, or you have metal skin.
>><<


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>>id=continuitybox border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#b2e5f9<<
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>>id=continuitybox border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#e1e7f1<<
Changed lines 42-43 from:
(:toggle continuitybox init=hide show='What should happen' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=continuitybox<<
to:
(:toggle continuitybox init=hide show='What should happen?' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=continuitybox border='1px solid #999' padding=5px bgcolor=#b2e5f9<<
Added lines 42-46:
(:toggle continuitybox init=hide show='What should happen' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=continuitybox<<
When you close the switch, the meter should beep, indicating that there is continuity between the two leads of the meter.
>><<

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(:toggle box3 init=hide show='I give up' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=box3<<
The text in this section can be hidden/shown
>><<

to:

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(:toggle box3:)
>>id=box3 show
="I give up" hide="Let me figure it out"<<
to:
(:toggle box3 init=hide show='I give up' hide='Let me figure it out':)
>>id=box3
<<
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>>id=box3<<
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>>id=box3 show="I give up" hide="Let me figure it out"<<
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(:toggle box3:)
>>id=box3<<
The text in this section can be hidden/shown
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(:toggle hide box1 button=1:)
The text in this section can be hidden/shown
>><<

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to:
>><<
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to:
(:toggle hide box1 button=1:)
The text in this section can be hidden/shown
>><<

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Measure the resistance across the resistor.  Then measure the voltage across each LED. Does the total add up to the voltage from power to ground? If not, where does the missing voltage go?
to:
Measure the voltage across the resistor.  Then measure the voltage across each LED. Does the total add up to the voltage from power to ground? If not, where does the missing voltage go?
Changed line 141 from:
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring resistance across the resistor'%[[Attach:voltage_across_resistor.png|Attach:voltage_across_resistor.png]]|[-measuring resistance across the resistor-]
to:
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring voltage across the resistor'%[[Attach:voltage_across_resistor.png|Attach:voltage_across_resistor.png]]|[-measuring voltage across the resistor-]
Changed line 143 from:
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring resistance across the first LED'%[[Attach:voltage_across_led.png|Attach:voltage_across_led.png]]|[-measuring resistance across the first LED-]
to:
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring voltage across the first LED'%[[Attach:voltage_across_led.png|Attach:voltage_across_led.png]]|[-measuring voltage across the first LED-]
Changed line 145 from:
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring resistance across power and ground'%[[Attach:voltage_power_ground.png|Attach:voltage_power_ground.png]]|[-measuring resistance across power and ground-]
to:
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring voltage across power and ground'%[[Attach:voltage_power_ground.png|Attach:voltage_power_ground.png]]|[-measuring voltage across power and ground-]
Changed lines 59-60 from:
[-measuring resistance. Note that this circuit is not complete.  The resistor connecting the LED to ground has been removed to measure its resistance. To measure resistance of a component, you must remove it from the circuit-]
to:
[-measuring resistance. Note that this circuit is not complete.-]
Added lines 63-64:
The circuit shown is not complete.  The resistor connecting the LED to ground has been removed to measure its resistance. To measure resistance of a component, you must remove it from the circuit.
Changed lines 59-60 from:
[-measuring resistance-]
to:
[-measuring resistance. Note that this circuit is not complete.  The resistor connecting the LED to ground has been removed to measure its resistance. To measure resistance of a component, you must remove it from the circuit-]
Changed lines 71-72 from:
The first thing you should do when working with electronic circuits is to get comfortable checking voltages in the circuit.  Wire a 7805 5-volt voltage regulator on a breadboard as shown in the [[Labs.Breadboard|breadboard lab]] and connect it to power.
to:
The first thing you should do when working with electronic circuits is to get comfortable checking voltages in the circuit.  Wire a 7805 5-volt voltage regulator on a breadboard as shown in the [[Labs.Breadboard|breadboard lab]] and connect it to power.The NYU Computer store, Radio Shack, and just about every electronics store will carry the voltage regulator, but if you don't have one, you can use the 5V output from an Arduino as well.
Changed line 78 from:
made with [[(http://www.)Fritzing(.org)]]
to:
[- made with [[(http://www.)Fritzing(.org)]] -]
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to:
[- made with [[(http://www.)Fritzing(.org)]] -]
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to:
[- made with [[(http://www.)Fritzing(.org)]] -]

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[- made with [[(http://www.)Fritzing(.org)]] -]
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COrey?
to:
made with [[(http://www.)Fritzing(.org)]]
Added line 78:
COrey?
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Next, check out [[MoreElectronics| this lab]].
to:
Next, check out [[Switches| this lab]].
Changed lines 210-211 from:
 
to:

Next, check out [[MoreElectronics| this lab]].
Added lines 42-43:
Put a wire in one hole of a breadboard.  Then put another wire in another hole, chosen at random.  Measure continuity between the two wires. Did you get what you expected?
Changed lines 31-67 from:
to:
!! Measuring Continuity

%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure continuity'%[[Attach:multimeter_continuity.jpg|Attach:multimeter_continuity.jpg]]
[-Multimeter set to measure continuity-]

'''Continuity''' is simply whether or not there is a connection between two points.  You can use it to find with connections on a switch or pushbutton are connected when you press the button. You can also use it to measure whether there's a break in a wire, or whether a given material conducts electricity.  Set your meter as shown here, and try touching the leads together.  The meter should beep. 

Now try touching the leads to two ends of a wire.  Again, the meter should beep.  The wire conducts electricity.  There is a continuous flow of electricity from one end of the wire to another.

Now try touching two points on a switch.  Do you get a beep?  What happens when you switch the switch?  Beep or no beep?

Try measuring the continuity across your hand.  Do you get anything?  Why or why not? You probably don't because the resistance across your skin is so high that it doesn't register as a continuous conductor.  It can conduct small amounts of current though.  You don't want your body to carry high amounts of current or voltage though, because it can damage or kill you.

[[<<]]
----

!! Resistance of a component

Resistance is a material property of a component, like a resistor or a wire.  To measure the resistance of a component, you have to remove the component from the circuit. To measure resistance, turn your  meter to the setting marked with the Greek letter Omega (&#937;):

%lfloat height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure resistance'%[[Attach:multimeter_resistance.jpg|Attach:multimeter_resistance.jpg]]\\
[-multimeter set to measure resistance-]

Ideally, you want the meter set to the approximate range, and slightly higher than, of the component's resistance. For example, to measure a 10Kilohm resistance, you'd choose 20K, because 10K and 20K are in the same order of magnitude.  For a 50K resistance, you'd have to step up to 200K, and so forth.  If you don't know the component's resistance, start with the meter set to a high reading, like 2M (2 Megaohms).  If you get a reading of zero, turn the meter one step lower, and keep doing so until you get a good reading. 

%lfloat height=300 alt='correct probe settings for measuring resistance of a resistor'%[[Attach:measuring_resistance.jpg|Attach:measuring_resistance.jpg]]\\
[-measuring resistance-]

Not all components will register resistance.  For example, a wire will ideally register 0 ohms, because you want wires to have as little resistance as possible so they don't affect the circuit. The longer the wire, the greater the resistance, however. Likewise, switches have ideally zero resistance.

If you measure the resistance of a diode, you may see a number flash briefly on the meter, then disappear. This is because diodes ideally have little or no resistance once voltage is flowing through them, but have what's called a '''forward bias''', a minimum voltage needed to get current flowing. Before you reach the forward bias voltage, the diode's resistance is ideally infinite.  After you reach it, the resistance is ideally zero.  There are no ideals in electronics, however, which is why you saw a voltage drop across the diodes in the circuits above.

Try measuring the reistance across your hand.  Set the meter really high, perhaps 2Megaohms  Do you get anything?  Why or why not?  Make your palm sweaty and try again.  What happened?


[[<<]]

Changed line 183 from:
[[<<]] 
to:
[[<<]]
Deleted lines 184-203:

!! Resistance of a component

Resistance is a material property of a component, like a resistor or a wire.  To measure the resistance of a component, you have to remove the component from the circuit. To measure resistance, turn your  meter to the setting marked with the Greek letter Omega (&#937;):

%lfloat height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure resistance'%[[Attach:multimeter_resistance.jpg|Attach:multimeter_resistance.jpg]]\\
[-multimeter set to measure resistance-]

Ideally, you want the meter set to the approximate range, and slightly higher than, of the component's resistance. For example, to measure a 10Kilohm resistance, you'd choose 20K, because 10K and 20K are in the same order of magnitude.  For a 50K resistance, you'd have to step up to 200K, and so forth.  If you don't know the component's resistance, start with the meter set to a high reading, like 2M (2 Megaohms).  If you get a reading of zero, turn the meter one step lower, and keep doing so until you get a good reading. 

%lfloat height=300 alt='correct probe settings for measuring resistance of a resistor'%[[Attach:measuring_resistance.jpg|Attach:measuring_resistance.jpg]]\\
[-measuring resistance-]

Not all components will register resistance.  For example, a wire will ideally register 0 ohms, because you want wires to have as little resistance as possible so they don't affect the circuit. The longer the wire, the greater the resistance, however. Likewise, switches have ideally zero resistance.

If you measure the resistance of a diode, you may see a number flash briefly on the meter, then disappear. This is because diodes ideally have little or no resistance once voltage is flowing through them, but have what's called a '''forward bias''', a minimum voltage needed to get current flowing. Before you reach the forward bias voltage, the diode's resistance is ideally infinite.  After you reach it, the resistance is ideally zero.  There are no ideals in electronics, however, which is why you saw a voltage drop across the diodes in the circuits above.


[[<<]]
----
Changed lines 104-105 from:
to:
Did you use two different color LEDs and get a different voltage drop across each one?  That's normal.  Because different color LEDs are made with different elements, and have slightly different voltage drops.
Deleted line 141:
Changed lines 159-160 from:

to:
%lfloat height=300 alt='correct probe settings for measuring resistance of a resistor'%[[Attach:measuring_resistance.jpg|Attach:measuring_resistance.jpg]]\\
[-measuring resistance-]

Not all components will register resistance.  For example, a wire will ideally register 0 ohms, because you want wires to have as little resistance as possible so they don't affect the circuit. The longer the wire, the greater the resistance, however. Likewise, switches have ideally zero resistance.

If you measure the resistance of a diode, you may see a number flash briefly on the meter, then disappear. This is because diodes ideally have little or no resistance once voltage is flowing through them, but have what's called a '''forward bias''', a minimum voltage needed to get current flowing. Before you reach the forward bias voltage, the diode's resistance is ideally infinite.  After you reach it, the resistance is ideally zero.  There are no ideals in electronics, however, which is why you saw a voltage drop across the diodes in the circuits above.


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to:
[[<<]]
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<<<<<<<
%lfloat
margin=15 height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%[[Attach:multimeter_voltage.jpg|Attach:multimeter_voltage.jpg]][-Multimeter set to measure DC voltage-]


to:

%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%[[Attach:multimeter_voltage.jpg|Attach:multimeter_voltage.jpg]]
[-Multimeter set to measure DC voltage-]

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%lfloat height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure resistance'%[[Attach:multimeter_.resistance.jpg|Attach:multimeter_.resistance.jpg]]\\
to:
%lfloat height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure resistance'%[[Attach:multimeter_resistance.jpg|Attach:multimeter_resistance.jpg]]\\
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<<<<<<<
Added line 54:
Changed lines 124-125 from:
%lfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%[[Attach:multimeter_amperage_low.jpg|Attach:multimeter_amperage_high.jpg]][-multimeter set to measure amperage up to 10A-]
to:
%lfloat height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%[[Attach:multimeter_amperage_low.jpg|Attach:multimeter_amperage_high.jpg]]\\
[-multimeter set to measure amperage up to 10A-]
Changed lines 154-155 from:
%lfloat alt='multimeter set to measure resistance'%[[Attach:multimeter_.resistance.jpg|Attach:multimeter_.resistance.jpg]][-multimeter set to measure resistance-]
to:
%lfloat height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure resistance'%[[Attach:multimeter_.resistance.jpg|Attach:multimeter_.resistance.jpg]]\\
[-multimeter set to measure resistance-]
Changed lines 50-52 from:
%lfloat margin=15 alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%[[Attach:multimeter_voltage.jpg|Attach:multimeter_voltage.jpg]][-Multimeter set to measure DC voltage-]

to:
%lfloat margin=15 height=200 alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%[[Attach:multimeter_voltage.jpg|Attach:multimeter_voltage.jpg]][-Multimeter set to measure DC voltage-]

Changed lines 28-29 from:
%lframe width=100px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter.jpg"multimeter"]] | [-Multimeter-]
to:
%lframe width=100px valign=center% [[Attach:multimeter_voltage.jpg | Attach:multimeter_voltage.jpg"multimeter"]] | [-Multimeter-]
Changed lines 50-52 from:
%lfloat margin=15 alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_dc_volts.jpg

to:
%lfloat margin=15 alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%[[Attach:multimeter_voltage.jpg|Attach:multimeter_voltage.jpg]][-Multimeter set to measure DC voltage-]

Changed lines 122-125 from:
%lfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_amps.jpg

Now you're going
to read the amperage at various points in the circuit.  Move your meter's red lead to the hole for measuring amperage. On many meters, there are three holes, one marked "Volts/Ohms/Hz", another marked "mA", and another marked "20A". The middle one can be used for measuring amperage when the expected amperage is less than 1A.  The latter is for measuring high amperage, up to 20A.  If you're not sure, it's best to use the hole for 20A. Then set your meter to measure DC amperage.
to:
%lfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%[[Attach:multimeter_amperage_low.jpg|Attach:multimeter_amperage_high.jpg]][-multimeter set to measure amperage up to 10A-]

Now you're going to read the amperage at various points in
the circuit.  Move your meter's red lead to the hole for measuring amperage. On many meters, there are three holes, one marked "Volts/Ohms/Hz", another marked "mA", and another marked "10A". The middle one can be used for measuring amperage when the expected amperage is less than 1A.  The latter is for measuring high amperage, up to 10A.  If you're not sure, it's best to use the hole for 10A. Then set your meter to measure DC amperage.
Added lines 146-158:

!! Resistance of a component

Resistance is a material property of a component, like a resistor or a wire.  To measure the resistance of a component, you have to remove the component from the circuit. To measure resistance, turn your  meter to the setting marked with the Greek letter Omega (&#937;):

%lfloat alt='multimeter set to measure resistance'%[[Attach:multimeter_.resistance.jpg|Attach:multimeter_.resistance.jpg]][-multimeter set to measure resistance-]

Ideally, you want the meter set to the approximate range, and slightly higher than, of the component's resistance. For example, to measure a 10Kilohm resistance, you'd choose 20K, because 10K and 20K are in the same order of magnitude.  For a 50K resistance, you'd have to step up to 200K, and so forth.  If you don't know the component's resistance, start with the meter set to a high reading, like 2M (2 Megaohms).  If you get a reading of zero, turn the meter one step lower, and keep doing so until you get a good reading. 




----
Changed line 97 from:
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring resistance across the first LED'%[[Attach:voltage_across_led.png|Attach:voltage_across_led.png]]|[measuring resistance across the first LED-]
to:
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring resistance across the first LED'%[[Attach:voltage_across_led.png|Attach:voltage_across_led.png]]|[-measuring resistance across the first LED-]
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%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring resistance across the resistor'%[[Attach:voltage_across_resistor.png|Attach:voltage_across_resistor.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring resistance across the resistor'%[[Attach:voltage_across_resistor.png|Attach:voltage_across_resistor.png]]|[-measuring resistance across the resistor-]
Changed line 97 from:
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring resistance across the first LED'%[[Attach:voltage_across_led.png|Attach:voltage_across_led.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring resistance across the first LED'%[[Attach:voltage_across_led.png|Attach:voltage_across_led.png]]|[measuring resistance across the first LED-]
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%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring resistance across power and ground'%[[Attach:voltage_power_ground.png|Attach:voltage_power_ground.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring resistance across power and ground'%[[Attach:voltage_power_ground.png|Attach:voltage_power_ground.png]]|[-measuring resistance across power and ground-]
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Click any image to see the larger version.
Deleted lines 92-104:
%hspace=5 width=300 alt='measuring resistance across the resistor'%[[Attach:voltage_across_resistor.png|Attach:voltage_across_resistor.png]]

%hspace=5 width=300 alt='measuring resistance across the first LED'%[[Attach:voltage_across_led.png|Attach:voltage_across_led.png]]

Did you get no reading when you measured? Did you remember to push the button before you took your reading?

Add a third LED in the series.  Do they light?  Why or why not?


-------
!! Components in parallel; measuring amperage

Connect three LEDs in parallel like so (remember, long leg (anode) goes to voltage, short leg (cathode) goes to ground):
Changed lines 95-96 from:
%hspace=5 alt='LED in parallel schematic'%[[Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png|Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png]]
(:cell:)
to:
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring resistance across the resistor'%[[Attach:voltage_across_resistor.png|Attach:voltage_across_resistor.png]]
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%hspace=5 width=300 alt='leds in series'%[[Attach:leds_parallel.png|Attach:leds_parallel.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring resistance across the first LED'%[[Attach:voltage_across_led.png|Attach:voltage_across_led.png]]
(:cell:)
%hspace=5 width=200 alt='measuring resistance across power and ground'%[[Attach:voltage_power_ground.png|Attach:voltage_power_ground
.png]]
Added lines 102-119:

Did you get no reading when you measured? Did you remember to push the button before you took your reading?

Add a third LED in the series.  Do they light?  Why or why not?


-------
!! Components in parallel; measuring amperage

Connect three LEDs in parallel like so (remember, long leg (anode) goes to voltage, short leg (cathode) goes to ground):
(:table:)
(:cellnr:)
%hspace=5 alt='LED in parallel schematic'%[[Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png|Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png]]
(:cell:)
(:cell:)
%hspace=5 width=300 alt='leds in series'%[[Attach:leds_parallel.png|Attach:leds_parallel.png]]
(:tableend:)

Changed lines 2-3 from:
This lab will introduce you to a few basic electronic principles by trying them in action. Before you do this lab, you should familiarize yourself with the [[Labs.Breadboard |solderless breadboard]] and make yourself a [[Labs.Soldering |power connector]].
to:
This lab will introduce you to a few basic electronic principles by trying them in action. You'll learn how to measure voltage, amperage, and resistance using a multimeter. Before you do this lab, you should familiarize yourself with the [[Labs.Breadboard |solderless breadboard]] and make yourself a [[Labs.Soldering |power connector]].
Changed lines 80-81 from:
Connect a 220-ohm resistor and two LEDs in series from power to ground like so (remember, long leg  of the LED (anode) goes to voltage, short leg (cathode) goes to ground):
to:
Connect a pushbutton, a 220-ohm resistor and two LEDs in series from power to ground like so (remember, long leg  of the LED (anode) goes to voltage, short leg (cathode) goes to ground):
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to:
%hspace=5 width=300 alt='measuring resistance across the resistor'%[[Attach:voltage_across_resistor.png|Attach:voltage_across_resistor.png]]

%hspace=5 width=300 alt='measuring resistance across the first LED'%[[Attach:voltage_across_led.png|Attach:voltage_across_led.png]]

Did you get no reading when you measured? Did you remember to push the button before you took your reading?

Changed lines 89-91 from:
Measure the resistance across the resistor.  Then measure the voltage across each LED. Doe the total add up to the voltage from power to ground? If not, where does the missing voltage go?

to:
Measure the resistance across the resistor.  Then measure the voltage across each LED. Does the total add up to the voltage from power to ground? If not, where does the missing voltage go?

Added line 32:
Changed lines 80-81 from:
Connect two LEDs in series from power to ground like so (remember, long leg (anode) goes to voltage, short leg (cathode) goes to ground):
to:
Connect a 220-ohm resistor and two LEDs in series from power to ground like so (remember, long leg  of the LED (anode) goes to voltage, short leg (cathode) goes to ground):
Changed lines 89-90 from:
Measure the voltage across each LED. You should get the same voltage across both, and the total should add up to approximately the total between power and ground.
to:
Measure the resistance across the resistor.  Then measure the voltage across each LED. Doe the total add up to the voltage from power to ground? If not, where does the missing voltage go?

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%hspace=5 alt='LED with potentiometer'%[[Attach:breadboard_LED_pot.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_pot.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 height=200 alt='LED with potentiometer'%[[Attach:breadboard_LED_pot.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_pot.png]]
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%hspace=5 alt='LED with potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_w_pot.jpg
to:
%hspace=5 alt='LED with potentiometer'%[[Attach:breadboard_LED_pot.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_pot.png]]
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%rframe margin=15 width=300%[[Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg]]|[-correct position for metering amperage.  \\
Note that the third LED's leg has been moved, \\
so there is no electrical connection with the second LED. \\
to:
%rframe margin=15 width=300%[[Attach:breadboard_LED_parallel_meter.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_parallel_meter.png]]|[-correct position for metering amperage.  \\
Note that the second LED's anode leg has been moved, \\
so there is no electrical connection with the other LED's anodes. \\
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%hspace=5 width=300 alt='leds in series' %[[Attach:leds_serial.jpg|Attach:leds_serial.jpg]]
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%hspace=5 width=300 alt='leds in series' %[[Attach:leds_serial.png|Attach:leds_serial.png]]
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%hspace=5 width=300 alt='leds in series'%[[Attach:leds_parallel.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel.jpg]]
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%hspace=5 width=300 alt='leds in series'%[[Attach:leds_parallel.png|Attach:leds_parallel.png]]
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%hspace=5 height-=200 alt='LED switch' %[[Attach:breadboard_LED_switch.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_switch.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 height=200 alt='LED switch' %[[Attach:breadboard_LED_switch.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_switch.png]]
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%hspace=5 height-=200alt='LED switch' %[[Attach:breadboard_LED_switch.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_switch.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 height-=200 alt='LED switch' %[[Attach:breadboard_LED_switch.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_switch.png]]
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%hspace=5 alt='LED switchphoto' %http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_switch_resistor_photo.jpg
to:
%hspace=5 height-=200alt='LED switch' %[[Attach:breadboard_LED_switch.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_switch.png]]
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%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator ' height=200% [[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png |Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 height=200 alt='5v regulator '% [[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png |Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png]]
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%hspace=5 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' height=200%[[Attach:breadboard_LED.png|Attach:breadboard_LED.png]]
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%hspace=5 height=200 alt='measuring voltage of an LED'%[[Attach:breadboard_LED.png|Attach:breadboard_LED.png]]
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%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED height=200'%[[Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]
to:

%rframe margin=15 height=200 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' %[[Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]

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%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator'% [[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png |Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator ' height=200% [[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png |Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png]]
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%hspace=5 alt='measuring voltage of an LED'%[[Attach:breadboard_LED.png|Attach:breadboard_LED.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' height=200%[[Attach:breadboard_LED.png|Attach:breadboard_LED.png]]
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%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED'%[[Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]
to:
%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED height=200'%[[Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]
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%hspace=5 height=180 alt='5v regulator'% [[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png |Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator'% [[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png |Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png]]
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%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED'%[[Attach:breadboard_LED.png|Attach:breadboard_LED.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 alt='measuring voltage of an LED'%[[Attach:breadboard_LED.png|Attach:breadboard_LED.png]]
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%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' [[Attach:breadboard_LED.png|Attach:breadboard_LED.png]]
to:
%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED'%[[Attach:breadboard_LED.png|Attach:breadboard_LED.png]]
Changed lines 49-50 from:
%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' [[Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]
to:
%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED'%[[Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]
Changed lines 42-43 from:
%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:breadboard_LED.png|Attach:breadboard_LED.png]]
to:

%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' [[Attach:breadboard_LED.png|Attach:breadboard_LED.png]]
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%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]
to:
%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' [[Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]
Added lines 40-44:
[[<<]]
Now add an LED and a 220-ohm resistor to the breadboard like so:
%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:breadboard_LED.png|Attach:breadboard_LED.png]]
[[<<]]

Changed lines 42-43 from:
%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png|breadboard_LED_meter.png]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]
to:
%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png|Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]
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%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:voltage_led.jpg|Attach:voltage_led.jpg]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]
to:
%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:breadboard_LED_meter.png|breadboard_LED_meter.png]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]
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%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator'% [[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png |Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 height=180 alt='5v regulator'% [[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png |Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png]]
Changed lines 36-40 from:
<<<<<<<
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator'%[[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png|Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png]]
=======
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator'%[[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png|Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png]]
>>>>>>>
to:
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator'% [[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png |Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png]]
Changed line 37 from:
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator photo'%[[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png |Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png|]]
to:
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator'%[[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png|Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png]]
Changed line 39 from:
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator photo'%[[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png|Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png|]]
to:
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator'%[[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png|Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png]]
Added lines 36-38:
<<<<<<<
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator photo'%[[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png |Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png|]]
=======
Added line 40:
>>>>>>>
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%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator photo'%[[Attach:breadboard_5V.png|Attach:breadboard_5V.png|]]
to:
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator photo'%[[Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png|Attach:breadboard_5V_reg.png|]]
Changed line 36 from:
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator photo'%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg|http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg]]
to:
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator photo'%[[Attach:breadboard_5V.png|Attach:breadboard_5V.png|]]
Changed lines 111-114 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png


to:
[[Attach:metering_amps_sch.png |Attach:metering_amps_sch.png]]


Changed lines 54-55 from:
Now you're going to make your first working circuit. Disconnect the board from power and add an LED, a switch, and a resistor in series like so:
to:
Now you're going to make your first working circuit. Disconnect the board from power and add an LED, a switch, and a resistor in series like so (remember, long leg (anode) goes to voltage, short leg (cathode) goes to ground):
Changed lines 70-71 from:
Connect two LEDs in series from power to ground like so:
to:
Connect two LEDs in series from power to ground like so (remember, long leg (anode) goes to voltage, short leg (cathode) goes to ground):
Deleted lines 80-81:
Even though there is no resistor in this circuit, the LEDs don't appear to be burning out.  Why not?
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Connect three LEDs in parallel like so:
to:
Connect three LEDs in parallel like so (remember, long leg (anode) goes to voltage, short leg (cathode) goes to ground):
Deleted lines 117-118:

Deleted lines 107-109:

http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png

Added lines 113-116:
http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png


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%lframe margin=15 width=300%[[Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg]]|[-correct position for metering amperage.  \\
to:
%rframe margin=15 width=300%[[Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg]]|[-correct position for metering amperage.  \\
Deleted lines 110-114:
[[<<]]


You'll find that the amperage drawn by the LEDs is tiny, on the order of 10 or 20 milliamps at the most. That's normal for LEDs.

Changed lines 116-120 from:
to:
You'll find that the amperage drawn by the LEDs is tiny, on the order of 10 or 20 milliamps at the most. That's normal for LEDs.



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%hspace=15 alt='LEDs in parallel with meter in the circuit'% http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png
Changed lines 109-110 from:
%right hspace=15 alt='LEDs in parallel with meter in the circuit'% http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png
to:
%hspace=15 alt='LEDs in parallel with meter in the circuit'% http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png
Changed line 95 from:
%hspace=5  width=300 alt='leds in series'%[[Attach:leds_parallel.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel.jpg]]
to:
%hspace=5 width=300 alt='leds in series'%[[Attach:leds_parallel.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel.jpg]]
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%rfloat alt='LEDs in parallel with meter in the circuit'% http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png
to:
%right hspace=15 alt='LEDs in parallel with meter in the circuit'% http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png
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%lfloat margin=15 alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_amps.jpg
to:
%lfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_amps.jpg
Changed lines 109-110 from:
%rfloat margin=15 alt='LEDs in parallel with meter in the circuit'% http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png
to:
%rfloat alt='LEDs in parallel with meter in the circuit'% http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png
Changed lines 108-109 from:
%rfloat alt='LEDs in parallel with meter in the circuit'% http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png
to:

%rfloat margin=15 alt='LEDs in parallel with meter in the circuit'% http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png
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%rfloat alt='LEDs in parallel with meter in the circuit'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png
to:
%rfloat alt='LEDs in parallel with meter in the circuit'% http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png
Added lines 112-114:

You'll find that the amperage drawn by the LEDs is tiny, on the order of 10 or 20 milliamps at the most. That's normal for LEDs.

Changed lines 117-121 from:
so there is no electrical connection with the second LED.  The meter completes the circuit-]


You'll find that the amperage drawn by the LEDs is tiny, on the order of 10 or 20 milliamps at the most. That's normal for LEDs.

to:
so there is no electrical connection with the second LED. \\
The
meter completes the circuit-]

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%lframe margin=15 alt='LEDs in parallel with meter in the circuit'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png
to:
%rfloat alt='LEDs in parallel with meter in the circuit'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png

[[<<]]

Changed line 110 from:
%lframe margin=15 width=300 %[[Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg]]|[-correct position for metering amperage.  \\
to:
%lframe margin=15 width=300%[[Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg]]|[-correct position for metering amperage.  \\
Changed lines 108-110 from:
%rfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png

%rframe margin=15 width=300 %[[Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg]]|[-correct position for metering amperage.  \\
to:
%lframe margin=15 alt='LEDs in parallel with meter in the circuit'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png

%lframe margin=15 width=300 %[[Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg]]|[-correct position for metering amperage.  \\
Added line 114:
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%center width=300 alt='leds in series' %[[Attach:leds_serial.jpg|Attach:leds_serial.jpg]]
to:
%hspace=5 width=300 alt='leds in series' %[[Attach:leds_serial.jpg|Attach:leds_serial.jpg]]
Changed lines 110-111 from:
%rframe margin=15 width=300%[[Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg]]|[-correct position for metering amperage.  Note that the third LED's leg has been moved, so there is no electrical connection with the second LED.  The meter completes the circuit-]
to:
%rframe margin=15 width=300 %[[Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg]]|[-correct position for metering amperage.  \\
Note that the third LED's leg has been moved, \\
so there is no electrical connection with the second LED.  The meter completes the circuit-]
Changed lines 110-111 from:
%rframe margin=15%[[Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg]]|[-correct position for metering amperage.  Note that the third LED's leg has been moved, so there is no electrical connection with the second LED.  The meter completes the circuit-]
to:
%rframe margin=15 width=300%[[Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg]]|[-correct position for metering amperage.  Note that the third LED's leg has been moved, so there is no electrical connection with the second LED.  The meter completes the circuit-]
Changed line 76 from:
%center alt='leds in series' width=240%[[Attach:leds_serial.jpg|Attach:leds_serial.jpg]]
to:
%center width=300 alt='leds in series' %[[Attach:leds_serial.jpg|Attach:leds_serial.jpg]]
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%hspace=5  width=240 alt='leds in series'%[[Attach:leds_parallel.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel.jpg]]
to:
%hspace=5  width=300 alt='leds in series'%[[Attach:leds_parallel.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel.jpg]]
Added lines 110-111:
%rframe margin=15%[[Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel_ampmeter.jpg]]|[-correct position for metering amperage.  Note that the third LED's leg has been moved, so there is no electrical connection with the second LED.  The meter completes the circuit-]
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%center alt='leds in series' width=240%[[Attach:leds_parallel.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel.jpg]]
to:
%hspace= width=240 alt='leds in series'%[[Attach:leds_parallel.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel.jpg]]
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%hspace=5 alt='LED in parallel schematic' width=240 %[[Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png|Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 alt='LED in parallel schematic'%[[Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png|Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png]]
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%center alt='leds in series'width=240%[[Attach:leds_parallel.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel.jpg]]
to:
%center alt='leds in series' width=240%[[Attach:leds_parallel.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel.jpg]]
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%hspace=5 alt='LED in parallel schematic' width=240 %Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png
to:
%hspace=5 alt='LED in parallel schematic' width=240 %[[Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png|Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png]]
(:cell:)
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%center alt='leds in series'width=240%Attach:leds_parallel.jpg
to:
%center alt='leds in series'width=240%[[Attach:leds_parallel.jpg|Attach:leds_parallel.jpg]]
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%hspace=5 alt='LED in parallel schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_parallel_sch.png
to:
%hspace=5 alt='LED in parallel schematic' width=240 %Attach:leds_parallel_sch.png
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%center alt='leds in series'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_parallel.jpg
to:
%center alt='leds in series'width=240%Attach:leds_parallel.jpg
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%hspace=5 alt='LED switchphoto'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_switch_resistor_photo.jpg
to:
%hspace=5 alt='LED switchphoto' %http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_switch_resistor_photo.jpg
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%hspace=5 alt='LED in series schematic' width=300%[[Attach:leds_series_sch.png|Attach:leds_series_sch.png]]
to:
%hspace=5 alt='LED in series schematic' width=240%[[Attach:leds_series_sch.png|Attach:leds_series_sch.png]]
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%center alt='leds in series' width=300%[[Attach:leds_serial.jpg|Attach:leds_serial.jpg]]
to:
%center alt='leds in series' width=240%[[Attach:leds_serial.jpg|Attach:leds_serial.jpg]]
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%hspace=5 alt='LED in series schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_series_sch.png
to:
%hspace=5 alt='LED in series schematic' width=300%[[Attach:leds_series_sch.png|Attach:leds_series_sch.png]]
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%center alt='leds in series'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_serial.jpg
to:
%center alt='leds in series' width=300%[[Attach:leds_serial.jpg|Attach:leds_serial.jpg]]
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%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:voltage_led.jpg|Attach:voltage_led.jpg]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]
Added lines 45-49:

Set your multimeter to measure DC volts. The voltage regulator you're using can take an input voltage range of about 8 to 15 volts, and it outputs 5 volts, so you know that no voltage you'll read in this circuit is over about 15 volts.  If your meter has a variety of ranges for DC volts, choose a range that matches this. For example, many meters have a setting for 20 volts, meaning that they can read up to 20V DC at that setting.  Measure for voltage between the power and ground bus rows on the breadboard.  You should have 5 volts, or very close to that.

Did you get a negative voltage? That means you placed the red lead on the point of lower voltage, and the black lead on the point of higher voltage.  In other words, you '''reversed the polarity'''.
----
Deleted lines 51-59:
%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:voltage_led.jpg|Attach:voltage_led.jpg]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]


Set your multimeter to measure DC volts. The voltage regulator you're using can take an input voltage range of about 8 to 15 volts, and it outputs 5 volts, so you know that no voltage you'll read in this circuit is over about 15 volts.  If your meter has a variety of ranges for DC volts, choose a range that matches this. For example, many meters have a setting for 20 volts, meaning that they can read up to 20V DC at that setting.  Measure for voltage between the power and ground bus rows on the breadboard.  You should have 5 volts, or very close to that.

Did you get a negative voltage? That means you placed the red lead on the point of lower voltage, and the black lead on the point of higher voltage.  In other words, you '''reversed the polarity'''.
----
[[<<]]

Changed lines 45-47 from:
%lframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:voltage_led.jpg|Attach:voltage_led.jpg]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]

to:
%rframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:voltage_led.jpg|Attach:voltage_led.jpg]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]

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hh
to:
Changed lines 45-47 from:
%% alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:voltage_led.jpg|Attach:voltage_led.jpg]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]

to:
%lframe margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:voltage_led.jpg|Attach:voltage_led.jpg]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]

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%%lframe alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:voltage_led.jpg|Attach:voltage_led.jpg]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]

to:
%% alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:voltage_led.jpg|Attach:voltage_led.jpg]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]

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%alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:voltage_led.jpg|Attach:voltage_led.jpg]]

to:
%%lframe alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:voltage_led.jpg|Attach:voltage_led.jpg]] | [-Correct meter probe placement for measuring the voltage of an LED-]

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to:
[[<<]]
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%lfloat margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED'width=300%[[Attach:voltage_led.jpg|Attach:voltage_led.jpg]]

to:
%alt='measuring voltage of an LED' width=300%[[Attach:voltage_led.jpg|Attach:voltage_led.jpg]]

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%lfloat margin=15 alt='measuring voltage of an LED'width=300%[[Attach:voltage_led.jpg|Attach:voltage_led.jpg]]

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hh
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%lframe width=100px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg"Solderless breadboard"]] | [-Soldered DC Power Jack-]
to:
%lframe width=100px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg"Soldered DC Power Jack"]] | [-Soldered DC Power Jack-]
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%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator photo'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg
to:
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator photo'%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg|http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg]]
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!! Overview
to:
!!! Overview
Changed lines 6-7 from:
!!! Parts
to:
!! Parts
Changed line 29 from:
!!1. Measuring Voltage
to:
!! Measuring Voltage
Changed lines 49-50 from:
!!2. A Basic LED Circuit
to:
!! A Basic LED Circuit
Changed lines 65-66 from:
!!3. Components in Series
to:
!! Components in Series
Changed lines 84-85 from:
!!4. Components in parallel; measuring amperage
to:
!! Components in parallel; measuring amperage
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!!5. Generating a Variable Voltage with a Potentiometer
to:
!! Generating a Variable Voltage with a Potentiometer
Deleted lines 0-1:
(:toc Table of Contents:)
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!!!! To do this, you'll need:
to:
(:toc Table of Contents:)

!!! Parts

To do this, you'll need:
Added lines 1-2:
(:toc Table of Contents:)
Changed lines 56-57 from:
Connect the board to your power supply and press the switch. It will illuminate the LED. Let go of the switch and it will turn the LED off again. By pressing the switch you are completing a circuit and allowing the resistor and LED to begin consuming electricity. The resistor is very important in this circuit as it protects the LED from being over-powered, which will eventually burn it out. A typical LED operates at a voltage of 2.0-2.6 volts (V) and consumes approximately 20 milliamps (mA). The resistor throttles the 5 volts coming from your voltage regulator and reduces the voltage to a level that is safer for the LED to consume.
to:
Connect the board to your power supply and press the switch. It will illuminate the LED. Let go of the switch and it will turn the LED off again. By pressing the switch you are completing a circuit and allowing the resistor and LED to begin consuming electricity. The resistor is very important in this circuit as it protects the LED from being over-powered, which will eventually burn it out. A typical LED operates at a voltage of 2.0-2.6 volts (V) and consumes approximately 20 milliamps (mA). The resistor throttles the 5 volts coming from your voltage regulator and reduces the voltage to a level that is safer for the LED to consume. The higher the resistor value, the less electricity that will reach the LED. The lower the resistor value (with 0 ohms being no resistor at all), the more electricity that will reach the LED.
Changed lines 56-57 from:
Connect the board to power and turn the switch on and off until you get bored. While you're doing so, measure the voltage across the switch as you did in the last step, both in the on position and the off position. Measure the voltage across the LED and the resistor as well.  Does the total resistance across all the components add up to the voltage between power and ground on your board? Remember, in any circuit, all of the voltage must be used up.  If the voltage across all the components doesn't add up, that indicates to you that some of the electrical energy is getting converted to light, heat, and other forms of energy. No component is 100% efficient, so there's always some loss.
to:
Connect the board to your power supply and press the switch. It will illuminate the LED. Let go of the switch and it will turn the LED off again. By pressing the switch you are completing a circuit and allowing the resistor and LED to begin consuming electricity. The resistor is very important in this circuit as it protects the LED from being over-powered, which will eventually burn it out. A typical LED operates at a voltage of 2.0-2.6 volts (V) and consumes approximately 20 milliamps (mA). The resistor throttles the 5 volts coming from your voltage regulator and reduces the voltage to a level that is safer for the LED to consume.

Now, while playing with the switch
, measure the voltage across the switch as you did in the last step, both in the on position and the off position. Measure the voltage across the LED and the resistor as well.  Does the total resistance across all the components add up to the voltage between power and ground on your board? Remember, in any circuit, all of the voltage must be used up.  If the voltage across all the components doesn't add up, that indicates to you that some of the electrical energy is getting converted to light, heat, and other forms of energy. No component is 100% efficient, so there's always some loss.
Deleted lines 128-129:
You'll learn more about voltage dividers and potentiometers in the analog input lab.
Deleted line 0:
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Connect three LEDs in series from power to ground like so:
to:
Connect two LEDs in series from power to ground like so:
Added lines 1-2:

!! Overview
Deleted lines 4-6:
!! Overview
This lab will introduce you to a few basic electronic principles by trying them in action. Before you do this lab, you should familiarize yourself with the [[Labs.Breadboard |solderless breadboard]] and make yourself a [[Labs.Soldering |power connector]].

Changed line 22 from:
%lframe width=100px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/switch.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/switch.jpg"resistors"]] | [-switch-]
to:
%lframe width=100px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/switch.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/switch.jpg"switch"]] | [-switch-]
Added line 22:
%lframe width=100px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/switch.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/switch.jpg"resistors"]] | [-switch-]
Deleted line 68:
Note: this image does not match the schematic. Use only two LEDs
Changed lines 80-81 from:
!!4. Components in parallel; Measuring Amperage
to:
!!4. Components in parallel; measuring amperage
Changed lines 80-81 from:
!!4. Components in parallel
to:
!!4. Components in parallel; Measuring Amperage
Added line 43:
----
Changed lines 57-58 from:
Connect the board to power and turn the switch on and off until you get bored. While you're doing so, measure the voltage across the switch as you did in the last step, both in the on position and the off position. Measure the voltage across the LED and the resistor as well.  Does the total resistance across all the components add up to the voltage between power and ground on your board?
to:
Connect the board to power and turn the switch on and off until you get bored. While you're doing so, measure the voltage across the switch as you did in the last step, both in the on position and the off position. Measure the voltage across the LED and the resistor as well.  Does the total resistance across all the components add up to the voltage between power and ground on your board? Remember, in any circuit, all of the voltage must be used up.  If the voltage across all the components doesn't add up, that indicates to you that some of the electrical energy is getting converted to light, heat, and other forms of energy. No component is 100% efficient, so there's always some loss.
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!! Measuring Voltage
to:
!!1. Measuring Voltage
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!! A Basic LED Circuit
to:
!!2. A Basic LED Circuit
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!!! Components in Series
to:
!!3. Components in Series
Changed lines 79-80 from:
!!! Components in parallel
to:
!!4. Components in parallel
Changed lines 107-108 from:
!!! Generating a Variable Voltage with a Potentiometer
to:
!!5. Generating a Variable Voltage with a Potentiometer
Added lines 41-42:

Did you get a negative voltage? That means you placed the red lead on the point of lower voltage, and the black lead on the point of higher voltage.  In other words, you '''reversed the polarity'''.
Changed lines 46-47 from:
Disconnect the board from power and add an LED, a switch, and a resistor in series like so:
to:

Now you're going to make your first working circuit.
Disconnect the board from power and add an LED, a switch, and a resistor in series like so:
Changed lines 56-57 from:
Connect the board to power and turn the switch on and off until you get bored. While you're doing so, measure the voltage across the switch, both in the on position and the off position. Measure the voltage across the LED and the resistor as well.  Does the total resistance across all the components add up to the voltage between power and ground on your board?
to:
Connect the board to power and turn the switch on and off until you get bored. While you're doing so, measure the voltage across the switch as you did in the last step, both in the on position and the off position. Measure the voltage across the LED and the resistor as well.  Does the total resistance across all the components add up to the voltage between power and ground on your board?
Changed lines 36-37 from:
%lfloat margin=5 alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_dc_volts.jpg
to:
%lfloat margin=15 alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_dc_volts.jpg
Changed lines 88-89 from:
%lfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_amps.jpg
to:
%lfloat margin=15 alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_amps.jpg
Changed lines 34-37 from:
to:
[[<<]]

%lfloat margin=5 alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_dc_volts.jpg

Deleted lines 39-40:
%alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_dc_volts.jpg
Changed lines 41-42 from:

to:
[[<<]]
Changed lines 34-35 from:
Set your multimeter to measure DC volts. The voltage regulator you're using can take an input voltage range of about 8 to 15 volts, and it outputs 5 volts, so you know that no voltage you'll read in this circuit is over about 15 volts.  If your meter has a variety of ranges for DC volts, choose a range that matches this. For example, many meters have a setting for 20 volts, meaning that they can read up to 20V DC at that setting.  Measure for voltage between the power and ground bus rows on the breadboard.  You should have 5 volts, or very close to that.
to:
Added lines 39-41:
Set your multimeter to measure DC volts. The voltage regulator you're using can take an input voltage range of about 8 to 15 volts, and it outputs 5 volts, so you know that no voltage you'll read in this circuit is over about 15 volts.  If your meter has a variety of ranges for DC volts, choose a range that matches this. For example, many meters have a setting for 20 volts, meaning that they can read up to 20V DC at that setting.  Measure for voltage between the power and ground bus rows on the breadboard.  You should have 5 volts, or very close to that.

Changed lines 122-123 from:
As you turn the potentiometer from one end to the other, measure the voltage at the center position.  The pot is acting as a voltage divider, which you'll learn more about in the analog input lab.
to:
As you turn the potentiometer from one end to the other, measure the voltage at the center position.  The pot is acting as a '''voltage divider''', dividing the 5V into two parts.  As the voltage feeding the LED goes up or down, the LED gets brighter or dimmer.  The 220-ohm resistor in the circuit protects the LED from overvoltage when the resistance between the pot's 5V lead and its center lead is 0 ohms. 

You'll learn more about voltage dividers and potentiometers
in the analog input lab.
Deleted lines 102-104:

In this last step, you'll generate a changing voltage using a potentiometer.  A potentiometer is a resistor that can change its resistance.  A potentiometer (or pot) has three connections. The outer leads are the ends of a fixed value resistor.  The center lead connects to a wiper which slides along the fixed resistor. The resistance between the center lead and either of the outside leads changes as the pot's knob is moved. 

Added lines 107-108:
In this last step, you'll generate a changing voltage using a potentiometer.  A potentiometer is a resistor that can change its resistance.  A potentiometer (or pot) has three connections. The outer leads are the ends of a fixed value resistor.  The center lead connects to a wiper which slides along the fixed resistor. The resistance between the center lead and either of the outside leads changes as the pot's knob is moved. 
(:cell:)
Changed lines 103-104 from:
%lfloat margin=5 alt='potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg
to:
Added lines 106-109:
(:table:)
(:cellnr:)
%alt='potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg
(:cell:)
Changed lines 111-112 from:
to:
(:tableend:)
Changed lines 107-108 from:
%alt='soldered pot leads'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/pot_soldered.jpg
to:
%alt='soldered pot leads'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/pot_soldering.jpg
Added lines 103-104:
%lfloat margin=5 alt='potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg
Changed lines 107-111 from:
%lfloat margin=5 alt='potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg


%alt='soldered pot
leads'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/pot_solder.jpg
to:
%alt='soldered pot leads'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/pot_soldered.jpg

Solder hook-up wires to the pot leads as shown here. Then connect the pot to an LED and a 220-ohm resistor using the following circuit:
Added lines 105-109:
%lfloat margin=5 alt='potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg


%alt='soldered pot leads'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/pot_solder.jpg

Changed lines 100-102 from:

!! Generating a Variable Voltage with a Potentiometer
to:
----
!!! Generating a Variable Voltage with a Potentiometer

In this last step, you'll generate a changing voltage using a potentiometer.  A potentiometer is a resistor that can change its resistance.  A potentiometer (or pot) has three connections. The outer leads are the ends of a fixed value resistor.  The center lead connects to a wiper which slides along the fixed resistor. The resistance between the center lead and either of the outside leads changes as the pot's knob is moved. 

Changed lines 99-100 from:
Once you feel like you understand these circuit basics, get creative. See how many LEDs you can place in parallel. Make up multiple-switch circuits.  Try adding a potentiometer like so:
to:
[[<<]]

!! Generating a Variable Voltage with a Potentiometer

Changed line 26 from:
!!1. Measuring Voltage
to:
!! Measuring Voltage
Changed line 40 from:
!!2. A Basic LED Circuit
to:
!! A Basic LED Circuit
Changed lines 53-54 from:
!!!3. Components in Series
to:
!!! Components in Series
Added line 62:
Note: this image does not match the schematic. Use only two LEDs
Changed lines 65-66 from:
Measure the voltage across each LED.  Do they light?  If not, remove one and see what happens. Measure the voltage across each LED again, and add up the total voltage.
to:
Measure the voltage across each LED. You should get the same voltage across both, and the total should add up to approximately the total between power and ground.

Even though there is no resistor in this circuit, the LEDs don't appear to be burning out
.  Why not?

Add a third LED in the series.  Do they light?  Why or why not?


Changed lines 83-86 from:


Measure the voltage across each LED. It should be the same. 
to:
Measure the voltage across each LED. It should be the same across each one
Changed lines 87-90 from:
Now move your meter's red lead to the hole for measuring amperage. On many meters, there are two holes, one marked "Volts/Ohms/Hz", another marked "mA", and another marked "20A". The middle one can be used for measuring amperage when the expected amperage is less than 1A.  The latter is for measuring high amperage, up to 20A.  If you're not sure, it's best to use the 10A hole. Then set your meter to measure amperage.

To measure
the amperage through a given component, you need to place your meter in series with the component.  When two components are in series, the amperage flowing through both of them is the same.
to:
Now you're going to read the amperage at various points in the circuit.  Move your meter's red lead to the hole for measuring amperage. On many meters, there are three holes, one marked "Volts/Ohms/Hz", another marked "mA", and another marked "20A". The middle one can be used for measuring amperage when the expected amperage is less than 1A.  The latter is for measuring high amperage, up to 20A.  If you're not sure, it's best to use the hole for 20A. Then set your meter to measure DC amperage.

To measure the amperage through a given
component, you need to place your meter in series with the component.  When two components are in series, the amperage flowing through both of them is the same. 
Changed lines 26-27 from:
!!Measuring Voltage
Wire a 7805 5-volt voltage regulator on a breadboard as shown in the [[Labs.Breadboard|breadboard lab]] and connect it to power.
to:
!!1. Measuring Voltage
The first thing you should do when working with electronic circuits is to get comfortable checking voltages in the circuit.  Wire a 7805 5-volt voltage regulator on a breadboard as shown in the [[Labs.Breadboard|breadboard lab]] and connect it to power.
Changed lines 34-35 from:
Set your multimeter to measure DC volts. If your meter has a variety of ranges for DC volts, choose a range of avout 20 volts.  Measure for voltage between the power and ground bus rows on the breadboard.  You should have 5 volts, or very close to that.
to:
Set your multimeter to measure DC volts. The voltage regulator you're using can take an input voltage range of about 8 to 15 volts, and it outputs 5 volts, so you know that no voltage you'll read in this circuit is over about 15 volts.  If your meter has a variety of ranges for DC volts, choose a range that matches this. For example, many meters have a setting for 20 volts, meaning that they can read up to 20V DC at that setting.  Measure for voltage between the power and ground bus rows on the breadboard.  You should have 5 volts, or very close to that.

'''Voltage''' is a measure of the difference in electrical energy between two points in a circuit. It's always measured between two points in a circuit. Measuring the voltage between the two sides of a component like an LED tells you how much voltage that component uses. This is known as measuring the voltage "across" the component. When you're measuring voltage across a component, you're putting the meter in parallel with the component. In that case, the voltage across both should be the same
.
Added line 40:
!!2. A Basic LED Circuit
Deleted lines 51-52:
'''Voltage''' is a measure of the difference in electrical energy between two points in a circuit. It's always measured between two points in a circuit. Measuring the voltage between the two sides of a component like an LED tells you how much voltage that component uses. This is known as measuring the voltage "across" the component. When you're measuring voltage across a component, you're putting the meter in parallel with the component. In that case, the voltage across both should be the same.  That's how the meter measures it.
Changed lines 53-54 from:
!!! Components in Series
to:
!!!3. Components in Series
Changed line 3 from:
!!! Overview
to:
!! Overview
Added lines 19-21:

[[<<]]

Changed lines 24-25 from:

to:
[[<<]]
Changed lines 8-18 from:
%lframe width=90px% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg"Solderless breadboard"]] | [-Solderless breadboard-]
%lframe width=90px% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/hookup_wire.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/hookup_wire.jpg"hookup wire"]] | [-22-AWG hookup wire-]
%lframe width=90px% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/voltage_reg.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/voltage_reg.jpg"Voltage regulator"]] | [-Voltage regulator-]

%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg"Solderless breadboard"]] | [-Soldered DC Power Jack-]
%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/wire_strippers.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/wire_strippers.jpg"wire strippers"]] | [-Wire Strippers-]
%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds.jpg"Light Emiting Diodes"]] | [-Light Emiting Diodes, LED -]

%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg"potentiometer"]] | [-10Kohm potentiometer-]
%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg"resistors"]] | [-220-ohm resistors-]
%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter.jpg"multimeter"]] | [-Multimeter-]
to:
%lframe width=100px% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg"Solderless breadboard"]] | [-Solderless breadboard-]
%lframe width=100px% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/hookup_wire.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/hookup_wire.jpg"hookup wire"]] | [-22-AWG hookup wire-]
%lframe width=100px% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/voltage_reg.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/voltage_reg.jpg"Voltage regulator"]] | [-Voltage regulator-]
%lframe width=100px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg"Solderless breadboard"]] | [-Soldered DC Power Jack-]
Changed lines 15-22 from:
to:
%lframe width=100px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/wire_strippers.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/wire_strippers.jpg"wire strippers"]] | [-Wire Strippers-]
%lframe width=100px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds.jpg"Light Emiting Diodes"]] | [-Light Emiting Diodes, LED -]
%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg"potentiometer"]] | [-10Kohm potentiometer-]
%lframe width=100px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg"resistors"]] | [-220-ohm resistors-]
%lframe width=100px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter.jpg"multimeter"]] | [-Multimeter-]


Changed line 16 from:
%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg | ttp://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg"potentiometer"]] | [-10Kohm potentiometer-]
to:
%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg"potentiometer"]] | [-10Kohm potentiometer-]
Added lines 15-18:

%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg | ttp://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg"potentiometer"]] | [-10Kohm potentiometer-]
%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg"resistors"]] | [-220-ohm resistors-]
%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter.jpg"multimeter"]] | [-Multimeter-]
Changed line 3 from:
!!!! Overview
to:
!!! Overview
Changed lines 15-16 from:

to:
[[<<]]

Changed lines 3-4 from:
To do this, you'll need:
(:table border=0
:)
to:
!!!! Overview
This lab will introduce
you to a few basic electronic principles by trying them in action. Before you do this lab, you should familiarize yourself with the [[Labs.Breadboard |solderless breadboard]] and make yourself a [[Labs.Soldering |power connector]].

!!!! To do this, you'll need:

%lframe width=90px% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg"Solderless breadboard"]] | [-Solderless breadboard-]
%lframe width=90px% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/hookup_wire.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/hookup_wire.jpg"hookup wire"]] | [-22-AWG hookup wire-]
%lframe width=90px% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/voltage_reg.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/voltage_reg.jpg"Voltage regulator"]] | [-Voltage regulator-]

%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg"Solderless breadboard"]] | [-Soldered DC Power Jack-]
%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/wire_strippers.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/wire_strippers.jpg"wire strippers"]] | [-Wire Strippers-]
%lframe width=90px valign=center% [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds.jpg"Light Emiting Diodes"]] | [-Light Emiting Diodes, LED -]


!!Measuring Voltage
Wire a 7805 5-volt voltage regulator on a breadboard as shown in the [[Labs.Breadboard|breadboard lab]] and connect it to power.
(:table
:)
Changed line 21 from:
Solderless breadboard
to:
%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.png
Changed lines 23-33 from:
22-AWG hookup wire
to:
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator photo'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg
(:tableend:)
Set your multimeter to measure DC volts. If your meter has a variety of ranges for DC volts, choose a range of avout 20 volts.  Measure for voltage between the power and ground bus rows on the breadboard.  You should have 5 volts, or very close to that.

%alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_dc_volts.jpg

Disconnect the board from power and add an LED, a switch, and a resistor in series like so:

(:table:)
(:cellnr:)
%hspace=5 alt='LED and switch schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_switch_sch.png
Changed lines 35-36 from:
7805 voltage regulator
to:
%hspace=5 alt='LED switchphoto'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_switch_resistor_photo.jpg
(:tableend:)

Connect the board to power and turn the switch on and off until you get bored. While you're doing so, measure the voltage across the switch, both in the on position and the off position. Measure the voltage across the LED and the resistor as well.  Does the total resistance across all the components add up to the voltage between power and ground on your board?

'''Voltage''' is a measure of the difference in electrical energy between two points in a circuit. It's always measured between two points in a circuit. Measuring the voltage between the two sides of a component like an LED tells you how much voltage that component uses. This is known as measuring the voltage "across" the component. When you're measuring voltage across a component, you're putting the meter in parallel with the component. In that case, the voltage across both should be the same.  That's how the meter measures it.

---------
!!! Components in Series

Connect three LEDs in series from power to ground like so:

(:table:)
Changed line 49 from:
%alt='breadboard' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
to:
%hspace=5 alt='LED in series schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_series_sch.png
Changed lines 51-62 from:
%alt='hookup wire' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/hookup_wire.jpg
to:
%center alt='leds in series'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_serial.jpg
(:tableend:)

Measure the voltage across each LED.  Do they light?  If not, remove one and see what happens. Measure the voltage across each LED again, and add up the total voltage.

-------
!!! Components in parallel

Connect three LEDs in parallel like so:
(:table:)
(:cellnr:)
%hspace=5 alt='LED in parallel schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_parallel_sch.png
Changed lines 64-65 from:
%alt='Voltage regulator' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/voltage_reg.jpg
to:
%center alt='leds in series'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_parallel.jpg
(:tableend:)



Measure the voltage across each LED. It should be the same. 

%lfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_amps.jpg

Now move your meter's red lead to the hole for measuring amperage. On many meters, there are two holes, one marked "Volts/Ohms/Hz", another marked "mA", and another marked "20A". The middle one can be used for measuring amperage when the expected amperage is less than 1A.  The latter is for measuring high amperage, up to 20A.  If you're not sure, it's best to use the 10A hole. Then set your meter to measure amperage.

To measure the amperage through a given component, you need to place your meter in series with the component.  When two components are in series, the amperage flowing through both of them is the same.

To measure the amperage through any one of the leds in this circuit, you'll need to disconnect one of its ends from the circuit ('''disconnect power first!''') and use the meter to complete the circuit, like so:

%rfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png

You'll find that the amperage drawn by the LEDs is tiny, on the order of 10 or 20 milliamps at the most. That's normal for LEDs.

Make sure that you check which holes your leads are connected to when you're using a meter. Measuring amperage with the red lead in the voltage hole, or measuring voltage with it in the amperage holes is a good way to damage the meter.

Once you feel like you understand these circuit basics, get creative. See how many LEDs you can place in parallel. Make up multiple-switch circuits.  Try adding a potentiometer like so:

(:table:)
Changed line 89 from:
[[Labs.Soldering|Soldered DC Power Jack]]
to:
%hspace=5 alt='LED with potentiometer schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_pot_sch.png
Changed lines 91-126 from:
Wire Strippers
(:cell:)
LEDs

(:cellnr:)
%alt='power connector' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg
(:cell:)
%alt='wire strippers' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/wire_strippers.jpg
(:cell:)
%alt='leds' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds.jpg

(:cellnr:)
10Kohm potentiometer
(:cell:)
220-ohm resistors
(:cell:)
Multimeter


(:cellnr:)
%alt='potentiometer' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg
(:cell:)
%alt='resistors' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg
(:cell:)
%alt='multimeter' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter.jpg

(:cellnr colspan=2:)
Variable resistor; either a flex sensor, photocell, force-sensing resistor (FSR), or another of your choosing.
(:cell:)


(:cellnr colspan=2:)
%alt='flex sensor' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/flex_sensors.jpg
(:cell:)

to:
%hspace=5 alt='LED with potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_w_pot.jpg
Changed lines 94-170 from:
Wire a 7805 5-volt voltage regulator on a breadboard as shown in the [[Labs.Breadboard|breadboard lab]] and connect it to power.
(:table:)
(:cellnr:)
%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.png
(:cell:)
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator photo'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg
(:tableend:)
Set your multimeter to measure DC volts. If your meter has a variety of ranges for DC volts, choose a range of avout 20 volts.  Measure for voltage between the power and ground bus rows on the breadboard.  You should have 5 volts, or very close to that.

%alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_dc_volts.jpg

Disconnect the board from power and add an LED, a switch, and a resistor in series like so:

(:table:)
(:cellnr:)
%hspace=5 alt='LED and switch schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_switch_sch.png
(:cell:)
%hspace=5 alt='LED switchphoto'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_switch_resistor_photo.jpg
(:tableend:)

Connect the board to power and turn the switch on and off until you get bored. While you're doing so, measure the voltage across the switch, both in the on position and the off position. Measure the voltage across the LED and the resistor as well.  Does the total resistance across all the components add up to the voltage between power and ground on your board?

'''Voltage''' is a measure of the difference in electrical energy between two points in a circuit. It's always measured between two points in a circuit. Measuring the voltage between the two sides of a component like an LED tells you how much voltage that component uses. This is known as measuring the voltage "across" the component. When you're measuring voltage across a component, you're putting the meter in parallel with the component. In that case, the voltage across both should be the same.  That's how the meter measures it.

---------
!!! Components in Series

Connect three LEDs in series from power to ground like so:

(:table:)
(:cellnr:)
%hspace=5 alt='LED in series schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_series_sch.png
(:cell:)
%center alt='leds in series'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_serial.jpg
(:tableend:)

Measure the voltage across each LED.  Do they light?  If not, remove one and see what happens. Measure the voltage across each LED again, and add up the total voltage.

-------
!!! Components in parallel

Connect three LEDs in parallel like so:
(:table:)
(:cellnr:)
%hspace=5 alt='LED in parallel schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_parallel_sch.png
(:cell:)
%center alt='leds in series'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_parallel.jpg
(:tableend:)



Measure the voltage across each LED. It should be the same. 

%lfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_amps.jpg

Now move your meter's red lead to the hole for measuring amperage. On many meters, there are two holes, one marked "Volts/Ohms/Hz", another marked "mA", and another marked "20A". The middle one can be used for measuring amperage when the expected amperage is less than 1A.  The latter is for measuring high amperage, up to 20A.  If you're not sure, it's best to use the 10A hole. Then set your meter to measure amperage.

To measure the amperage through a given component, you need to place your meter in series with the component.  When two components are in series, the amperage flowing through both of them is the same.

To measure the amperage through any one of the leds in this circuit, you'll need to disconnect one of its ends from the circuit ('''disconnect power first!''') and use the meter to complete the circuit, like so:

%rfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png

You'll find that the amperage drawn by the LEDs is tiny, on the order of 10 or 20 milliamps at the most. That's normal for LEDs.

Make sure that you check which holes your leads are connected to when you're using a meter. Measuring amperage with the red lead in the voltage hole, or measuring voltage with it in the amperage holes is a good way to damage the meter.

Once you feel like you understand these circuit basics, get creative. See how many LEDs you can place in parallel. Make up multiple-switch circuits.  Try adding a potentiometer like so:

(:table:)
(:cellnr:)
%hspace=5 alt='LED with potentiometer schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_pot_sch.png
(:cell:)
%hspace=5 alt='LED with potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_w_pot.jpg
(:tableend:)

to:
Changed line 13 from:
%alt='breadboard' width=50% height=50% align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
to:
%alt='breadboard' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
Changed line 13 from:
%alt='breadboard' width=160 height=120 align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
to:
%alt='breadboard' width=50% height=50% align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
Changed line 13 from:
%alt='breadboard' width=150 height=150 align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
to:
%alt='breadboard' width=160 height=120 align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
Changed line 13 from:
%alt='breadboard' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
to:
%alt='breadboard' width=150 height=150 align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
Deleted lines 0-3:
(:if loggedin true:)
I'm still working on this one.  Will finish tomorrow.  [[~tigoe]]
(:if:)

Changed lines 141-143 from:


to:
As you turn the potentiometer from one end to the other, measure the voltage at the center position.  The pot is acting as a voltage divider, which you'll learn more about in the analog input lab.
Changed lines 133-136 from:
%alt='LED with potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png


to:
(:table:)
(:cellnr:)
%hspace=5 alt='LED with potentiometer schematic'%http:
//itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_pot_sch.png 
(:cell:)
%hspace=5 alt='LED with potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_w_pot.jpg
(:tableend:)




Changed lines 125-130 from:
%lfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png


You'll find that the amperage drawn by the LEDs is tiny, on the order of 10 or 20 milliamps at the most.

to:
%rfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png

You'll find that the amperage drawn by the LEDs is tiny, on the order of 10 or 20 milliamps at the most. That's normal for LEDs.

Make sure that you check which holes your leads are connected to when you're using a meter. Measuring amperage with the red lead in the voltage hole, or measuring voltage with it in the amperage holes is a good way to damage the meter.

Once you feel like you understand these circuit basics, get creative. See how many LEDs you can place in parallel. Make up multiple-switch circuits.  Try adding a potentiometer like so:

%alt='LED with potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png



Changed lines 125-131 from:
%align=left alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png





to:
%lfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png


You'll find that the amperage drawn by the LEDs is tiny, on the order of 10 or 20 milliamps at the most.

Changed lines 125-131 from:
%alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png





to:
%align=left alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png





Added line 124:
Changed lines 124-130 from:
%rfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png





to:
%alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png





Changed lines 124-130 from:
%hspace=5 align=right alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png





to:
%rfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png





Changed lines 124-130 from:
%align=right alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png





to:
%hspace=5 align=right alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png





Changed lines 124-130 from:
%alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png





to:
%align=right alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png





Changed lines 124-131 from:

(add  schematic)





to:
%alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/metering_amps_sch.png





Added lines 117-118:
%lfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_amps.jpg
Deleted lines 120-121:
%lfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_amps.jpg
Changed lines 119-120 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_amps.jpg
to:
%lfloat alt='multimeter set to measure amperage'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_amps.jpg
Changed lines 117-120 from:
Now move your meter's red lead to the hole for measuring amperage. On many meters, there are two holes, one marked "Volts/Ohms/mA" and another marked "10A". The former can be used for measuring amperage when the expected amperage is less than 1A.  The latter is for measuring high amperage, up to 10A.  If you're not sure, it's best to use the 10A hole. Then set your meter to measure amperage.

(meter images here)
to:
Now move your meter's red lead to the hole for measuring amperage. On many meters, there are two holes, one marked "Volts/Ohms/Hz", another marked "mA", and another marked "20A". The middle one can be used for measuring amperage when the expected amperage is less than 1A.  The latter is for measuring high amperage, up to 20A.  If you're not sure, it's best to use the 10A hole. Then set your meter to measure amperage.

http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_amps.jpg
Changed line 95 from:
%hspace=5 alt='LED in series schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_series_sch.png
to:
%hspace=5 alt='LED in series schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_series_sch.png
Changed line 108 from:
%hspace=5 alt='LED in parallel schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_parallel_sch.png
to:
%hspace=5 alt='LED in parallel schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_parallel_sch.png
Changed line 81 from:
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='LED switchphoto'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_switch_resistor_photo.jpg
to:
%hspace=5 alt='LED switchphoto'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_switch_resistor_photo.jpg
Added lines 93-96:
(:table:)
(:cellnr:)
%hspace=5 alt='LED in series schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_series_sch.png
(:cell:)
Changed lines 98-99 from:

(add schematic)
to:
(:tableend:)
Changed lines 106-108 from:

(add schematic)
to:
(:table:)
(:cellnr:)
%hspace=5 alt='LED in parallel schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_parallel_sch.png
(:cell:)
Changed lines 111-114 from:
to:
(:tableend:)


Changed line 81 from:
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='LED switchphoto'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_switch_photo.jpg
to:
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='LED switchphoto'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_switch_resistor_photo.jpg
Changed lines 77-80 from:
(add LED/switch schematic and photo)

Connect the board to power and turn the switch on and off until you get bored. While you're doing so, measure the voltage across the switch. Measure the voltage across the LED as well.
to:
(:table:)
(:cellnr:)
%hspace=5 alt='LED and switch schematic
'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_switch_sch.png
(:cell:)
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='LED switchphoto'%http://itp
.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/led_switch_photo.jpg
(:tableend:)

Connect the board to power and turn the switch on and off until you get bored. While you're doing so, measure the voltage across the switch, both in the on position and the off position. Measure the voltage across the LED and the resistor as well.  Does the total resistance across all the components add up to the voltage between power and ground on your board?

Changed lines 73-74 from:
%lfloat margin=5 alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_dc_volts.jpg
to:
%alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_dc_volts.jpg
Changed lines 73-74 from:
%lfloar margin=5 alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_dc_volts.jpg
to:
%lfloat margin=5 alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_dc_volts.jpg
Added lines 73-74:
%lfloar margin=5 alt='multimeter set to measure DC volts'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter_dc_volts.jpg
Changed lines 65-67 from:

%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.png %hspace=5 width=160 height=120 alt='5v regulator photo'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg
to:
(:table:)
(:cellnr:)
%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.png
(:cell:)
%hspace=5 width=240 height=180 alt='5v regulator photo'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg
(:tableend:)
Changed lines 66-67 from:
%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.png %hspace=5 width=320 height=240 alt='5v regulator photo'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg
to:
%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.png %hspace=5 width=160 height=120 alt='5v regulator photo'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg
Changed lines 66-69 from:
%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.png

%hspace=5 width=320 height=240 alt='5v regulator photo'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg
to:
%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.png %hspace=5 width=320 height=240 alt='5v regulator photo'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg
Changed lines 68-69 from:
%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator photo'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg
to:
%hspace=5 width=320 height=240 alt='5v regulator photo'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg
Changed lines 66-69 from:
%lfloat margin=5 alt='5v regulator schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.png

%rfloat margin=5 alt='5v regulator photo'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg
to:
%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.png

%hspace=5 alt='5v regulator photo'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg
Changed lines 66-67 from:
%alt='5v regulator schematic%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.png
to:
%lfloat margin=5 alt='5v regulator schematic'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.png

%rfloat margin=5 alt='5v regulator photo'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/bboard_vreg_power_conn.jpg

Changed lines 66-67 from:
%alt='5v regulator schematic%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.jpg
to:
%alt='5v regulator schematic%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.png
Changed lines 66-67 from:
(add schematic and photo here)
to:
%alt='5v regulator schematic%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/5v_reg_sch.jpg
Changed line 8 from:
(:table border=1:)
to:
(:table border=0:)
Changed line 31 from:
%alt='wire strippers'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg
to:
%alt='power connector' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg
Changed line 33 from:
%alt='wire strippers'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/wire_strippers.jpg
to:
%alt='wire strippers' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/wire_strippers.jpg
Changed lines 35-36 from:
%alt='leds'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds.jpg
to:
%alt='leds' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds.jpg
Changed line 46 from:
%alt='potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg
to:
%alt='potentiometer' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg
Changed line 48 from:
%alt='resistors'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg
to:
%alt='resistors' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg
Changed lines 50-51 from:
%alt='multimeter'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter.jpg
to:
%alt='multimeter' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter.jpg
Changed line 58 from:
%alt='flex sensor'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/flex_sensors.jpg
to:
%alt='flex sensor' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/flex_sensors.jpg
Changed line 9 from:
(:cellnr align=top valign=center:)
to:
(:cellnr:)
Changed line 11 from:
(:cell align=top valign=center:)
to:
(:cell:)
Changed line 13 from:
(:cell align=top valign=center:)
to:
(:cell:)
Changed lines 15-20 from:
(:cellnr align=top valign=center:)
%alt='breadboard'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
(:cell align=top valign=center:)
%alt='hookup wire'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/hookup_wire.jpg
(:cell align=top valign=center:)
%alt='Voltage regulator'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/voltage_reg.jpg
to:
Changed line 17 from:
[[Labs.Soldering|Soldered DC Power Jack]]
to:
%alt='breadboard'  align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
Changed line 19 from:
Wire Strippers
to:
%alt='hookup wire' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/hookup_wire.jpg
Changed lines 21-22 from:
LEDs
to:
%alt='Voltage regulator' align=top valign=center%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/voltage_reg.jpg
Changed line 24 from:
%alt='wire strippers'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg
to:
[[Labs.Soldering|Soldered DC Power Jack]]
Changed line 26 from:
%alt='wire strippers'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/wire_strippers.jpg
to:
Wire Strippers
Changed lines 28-29 from:
%alt='leds'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds.jpg
to:
LEDs
Changed line 31 from:
10Kohm potentiometer
to:
%alt='wire strippers'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg
Changed line 33 from:
220-ohm resistors
to:
%alt='wire strippers'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/wire_strippers.jpg
Changed lines 35-37 from:
Multimeter

to:
%alt='leds'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds.jpg
Changed line 38 from:
%alt='potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg
to:
10Kohm potentiometer
Changed line 40 from:
%alt='resistors'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg
to:
220-ohm resistors
Added lines 42-49:
Multimeter


(:cellnr:)
%alt='potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg
(:cell:)
%alt='resistors'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg
(:cell:)
Changed line 8 from:
(:table:)
to:
(:table border=1:)
Deleted line 20:
Deleted line 14:
Changed line 9 from:
(:cellnr:)
to:
(:cellnr align=top valign=center:)
Changed line 11 from:
(:cell:)
to:
(:cell align=top valign=center:)
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(:cell:)
to:
(:cell align=top valign=center:)
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(:cellnr:)
to:
(:cellnr align=top valign=center:)
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(:cell:)
to:
(:cell align=top valign=center:)
Changed line 20 from:
(:cell:)
to:
(:cell align=top valign=center:)
Changed line 52 from:
(:cellnr:)
to:
(:cellnr colspan=2:)
Added lines 55-58:


(:cellnr colspan=2:)
%alt='flex sensor'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/flex_sensors.jpg
Changed lines 61-65 from:
(:cellnr:)
%alt='flex sensor'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/flex_sensors.jpg
(:cell:)
(:cell:)

to:
Changed line 58 from:
%alt='flex sensor'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/flex_sensor.jpg
to:
%alt='flex sensor'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/flex_sensors.jpg
Added line 53:
Variable resistor; either a flex sensor, photocell, force-sensing resistor (FSR), or another of your choosing.
Changed lines 57-59 from:

Variable resistor; either a flex sensor, photocell, force-sensing resistor (FSR), or another of your choosing.
to:
(:cellnr:)
%alt='flex
sensor'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/flex_sensor.jpg
(:cell:)
(:cell:)

Deleted line 36:
Changed lines 50-51 from:

to:
%alt='multimeter'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/multimeter.jpg
Added line 49:
%alt='resistors'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/resistors.jpg
Deleted line 8:
Added line 41:
220-ohm resistors
Changed lines 43-44 from:

to:
Multimeter

Added line 47:
%alt='potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg
Deleted lines 56-68:






220-ohm resistors


%alt='potentiometer'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/potentiometer.jpg

Multimeter

Deleted line 23:
Changed line 18 from:
%alt='solderless breadboard'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
to:
%alt='breadboard'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
Added line 9:
Deleted lines 13-15:

(:cellnr:)
%alt='solderless breadboard'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
Added lines 15-19:
7805 voltage regulator

(:cellnr:)
%alt='solderless breadboard'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/breadboard.jpg
(:cell:)
Deleted lines 20-25:




(:cellnr:)
[[Labs.Soldering|Soldered DC Power Jack]]
Added lines 22-27:
%alt='Voltage regulator'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/voltage_reg.jpg


(:cellnr:)
[[Labs.Soldering|Soldered DC Power Jack]]
(:cell:)
Deleted lines 28-31:



(:cellnr:)
Added lines 30-34:
LEDs

(:cellnr:)
%alt='wire strippers'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/power_connector.jpg
(:cell:)
Changed lines 37-38 from:

to:
%alt='leds'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds.jpg

Changed line 41 from:
7805 voltage regulator
to:
10Kohm potentiometer
Deleted line 42:
LEDs
Deleted line 46:
%alt='Voltage regulator'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/voltage_reg.jpg
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Wire a 7805 5-volt voltage regulator on a breadboard as shown in the breadboard lab and connect it to power.
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Wire a 7805 5-volt voltage regulator on a breadboard as shown in the [[Labs.Breadboard|breadboard lab]] and connect it to power.
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(:if loggedin true:)
I'm still working on this one.  Will finish tomorrow.  [[~tigoe]]
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(add schematic)
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Now move your meter's red lead to the hole for measuring amperage. On many meters, there are two holes, one marked "Volts/Ohms/mA" and another marked "10A". The former can be used for measuring amperage when the expected amperage is less than 1A.  The latter is for measuring high amperage, up to 10A.  If you're not sure, it's best to use the 10A hole.
to:
Now move your meter's red lead to the hole for measuring amperage. On many meters, there are two holes, one marked "Volts/Ohms/mA" and another marked "10A". The former can be used for measuring amperage when the expected amperage is less than 1A.  The latter is for measuring high amperage, up to 10A.  If you're not sure, it's best to use the 10A hole. Then set your meter to measure amperage.

(meter images here)

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Multimeter
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Wire a 7805 5-volt voltage regulator on a breadboard as shown in the breadboard lab and connect it to power.
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Wire a 7805 5-volt voltage regulator on a breadboard as shown in the breadboard lab and connect it to power.

(add schematic and photo here)

Set your multimeter to measure DC volts. If your meter has a variety of ranges for DC volts, choose a range of avout 20 volts.  Measure for voltage between the power and ground bus rows on the breadboard.  You should have 5 volts, or very close to that.

Disconnect the board from power and add an LED, a switch, and a resistor in series like so:

(add LED/switch schematic and photo)

Connect the board to power and turn the switch on and off until you get bored. While you're doing so, measure the voltage across the switch. Measure the voltage across the LED as well.

'''Voltage''' is a measure of the difference in electrical energy between two points in a circuit. It's always measured between two points in a circuit. Measuring the voltage between the two sides of a component like an LED tells you how much voltage that component uses. This is known as measuring the voltage "across" the component. When you're measuring voltage across a component, you're putting the meter in parallel with the component. In that case, the voltage across both should be the same.  That's how the meter measures it.

---------
!!! Components in Series

Connect three LEDs in series from power to ground like so:

Measure the voltage across each LED.  Do they light?  If not, remove one and see what happens. Measure the voltage across each LED again, and add up the total voltage.

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!!! Components in parallel

Connect three LEDs in parallel like so:

%center alt='leds in series'%http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/images/labs/leds_serial.jpg

Measure the voltage across each LED. It should be the same. 

Now move your meter's red lead to the hole for measuring amperage. On many meters, there are two holes, one marked "Volts/Ohms/mA" and another marked "10A". The former can be used for measuring amperage when the expected amperage is less than 1A.  The latter is for measuring high amperage, up to 10A.  If you're not sure, it's best to use the 10A hole.

To measure the amperage through a given component, you need to place your meter in series with the component.  When two components are in series, the amperage flowing through both of them is the same.

To measure the amperage through any one of the leds in this circuit, you'll need to disconnect one of its ends from the circuit ('''disconnect power first!''') and use the meter to complete the circuit, like so:

(add picture and schematic here)


 
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This lab will introduce you to a few basic electronic principles by trying them in action. Before you do this lab, you should familiarize yourself with the [[Labs.Breadboard |solderless breadboard]] and make yourself a [[Labs.Soldering |power connector]].

To do this, you'll need:

Solderless breadboard

[[Labs.Soldering|Soldered DC Power Jack]]

22-AWG jumper wires

Wire Strippers

7805 voltage regulator

LEDs

220-ohm resistors

10Kohm potentiometer

Variable resistor; either a flex sensor, photocell, force-sensing resistor (FSR), or another of your choosing.


Wire a 7805 5-volt voltage regulator on a breadboard as shown in the breadboard lab and connect it to power.
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