(edit sidebar)
Intro to Physical Computing Syllabus

Research & Learning

Other Class pages

Shop Admin

ITP Help Pages
Tom's pcomp site
DanO's pcomp site


Batteries

Notes.Batteries History

Hide minor edits - Show changes to output

Added lines 171-175:
[[http://www.sparkfun.com | Sparkfun]] also sells a few step-up breakout boards.

* [[http://www.sparkfun.com/products/8999|NCP1400 5V Step-Up breakout]]
* [[http://www.sparkfun.com/products/9216|NCP1400 3.3V Step-Up breakout]]

Changed line 151 from:
'''Price:'''$0.35 for a CR2032 with 220mAH. $1.50 for a CR123 with 1,300mAH\\
to:
'''Price:''' $0.35 for a CR2032 with 220mAH. $1.50 for a CR123 with 1,300mAH\\
Changed lines 146-147 from:
[[http://www.powerstream.com/|PowerStream]] is the only distributor I'm aware of that sells rechargeable Lithium coin cells in common coin cell sizes and also has a charger available.
to:
[[http://www.powerstream.com/|PowerStream]] is the only distributor I'm aware of that sells rechargeable Lithium coin cells in common coin cell sizes and also has a charger available. The nominal voltage of rechargeable coin cells is 3.7 volts.
Changed lines 128-129 from:
SparkFun also has a nice LiPo charger of their own on the market that I can safely say works quite well, SKU [[http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=8293|PRT-08293]].
to:
SparkFun also has a nice LiPo charger of their own on the market that I can safely say works quite well, SKU [[http://www.sparkfun.com/products/8293|PRT-08293]].
Changed line 16 from:
Connecting batteries in parallel will cause the amperage or capacity of your batteries to be additive while the voltage will stay the same. To wire your batteries in parallel, you connect the positive terminal of one battery to the positive terminal of the next battery, and the negative terminal of the first battery to the negative terminal of the second. In other words, you will connect "like" terminals. Positive to positive and negative to negative.\\
to:
Connecting batteries in parallel will cause the capacity of your batteries to be additive while the voltage will stay the same. To wire your batteries in parallel, you connect the positive terminal of one battery to the positive terminal of the next battery, and the negative terminal of the first battery to the negative terminal of the second. In other words, you will connect "like" terminals. Positive to positive and negative to negative.\\
Changed lines 22-23 from:
NOTE: Never build a battery pack consisting of different kinds of batteries (different form factors, different chemistries), for example: NiMH with Alkaline, Lithium Polymer with Lead Acid, Lithium with Alkaline, coin cells with AAs, AAAs with Ds, and so on.
to:
NOTE: Never build a battery pack consisting of different kinds of batteries (different form factors, different chemistry), for example: NiMH with Alkaline, Lithium Polymer with Lead Acid, Lithium with Alkaline, coin cells with AAs, AAAs with Ds, and so on.
Changed lines 26-27 from:
You can also create a battery pack that is mixes series and parallel configuration. If you know exactly how much voltage you'd like and/or how much capacity you'd like to provide, you can put your batteries in series and parallel to achieve that. The photo below shows two sets of two batteries, first put in parallel and then put in series with each to provide increased voltage AND capacity.
to:
You can also create a battery pack that is mixes series and parallel configuration. If you know exactly how much voltage you'd like and how much capacity you'd like to provide, you can put your batteries in series and parallel to achieve that. The photo below shows two sets of two batteries, first put in parallel and then put in series with each to provide increased voltage AND capacity.
Changed lines 8-9 from:
Connecting batteries in series will cause the voltages of each of your batteries to be additive while the amperage or capacity will stay the same. To wire your batteries in series, you connect the positive terminal of one battery to the negative terminal of the next battery.
to:
Connecting batteries in series will cause the voltages of each of your batteries to be additive while the capacity will stay the same. To wire your batteries in series, you connect the positive terminal of one battery to the negative terminal of the next battery.
Changed lines 4-5 from:
You can either connect them to maximize your voltage output or you can connect them to maximize the overall amperage or capacity of your battery pack.
to:
You can either connect them to maximize your voltage output or you can connect them to maximize the overall capacity of your battery pack.
Deleted lines 0-1:
(:toc Table of Contents:)
Added lines 1-2:
(:toc Table of Contents:)
Changed lines 42-43 from:
The nominal voltage of a battery is always advertised on the battery itself.
to:
The nominal voltage of a battery is often advertised on the battery itself.
Changed lines 40-41 from:
Do the batteries supply enough voltage to make my electronics happy? All electronics components have a range of voltage in which they are comfortable operating, do these batteries supply a voltage within the range of all my components in the circuit? The most common operating voltages for microcontrollers and digital processors is 5V or 3.3V so this usually makes it easy. If you are not sure what the operating voltage of a particular component is, read its datasheet. [[http://octopart.com/|Octopart]] is your friend.
to:
Do the batteries supply enough voltage to make my electronics happy? All electronics components have a range of voltage in which they are comfortable operating, do these batteries supply a voltage within the range of all my components in the circuit? The most common operating voltages for microcontrollers and digital processors are 5V and 3.3V so this usually makes it easy. If you are not sure what the operating voltage of a particular component is, read its datasheet. [[http://octopart.com/|Octopart]] is your friend.
Changed lines 36-37 from:
There are three things to consider when looking at which batteries are the best fit for your project: voltage, capacity, and capability.
to:
There are three things to consider when looking at which batteries are the best fit for your project: voltage, capacity, capability, and power density.
Changed line 54 from:
The power capability of a battery is measured in [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coulomb|coulombs]] and denoted by a C. You will NOT find this measurement advertised on the battery or its packaging but you can often find a rough estimate online or through wikipedia.\\
to:
The power capability of a battery is measured in [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coulomb|coulombs]] and denoted by a C. You will NOT find this measurement advertised on the battery or its packaging but you can often find a rough estimate online and a more accurate measurements through the battery manufacturer's datasheet, if they are so kind.\\
Added lines 142-143:
%rfloat height=150px%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_coin.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_coin.jpg]]
Added lines 119-120:
[[<<]]
Added lines 123-125:
%rfloat height=150px%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_liion.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_liion.jpg]]
%rfloat height=150px%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_lipo.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_lipo.jpg]]

Added lines 138-139:
[[<<]]
Added lines 109-110:
%rfloat height=150px%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_nimh.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_nimh.jpg]]
Added lines 92-93:
[[<<]]
Added lines 105-106:
[[<<]]
Added lines 94-95:
%rfloat height=150px%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_nicad.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_nicad.jpg]]
Changed lines 68-69 from:
%rfloat height=200px%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_leadacid.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_leadacid.jpg]]
to:
%rfloat height=150px%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_leadacid.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_leadacid.jpg]]
Added lines 82-83:
%rfloat height=150px%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_alkaline.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_alkaline.jpg]]
Added lines 68-69:
%rfloat height=200px%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_leadacid.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_leadacid.jpg]]
Added lines 78-79:
[[<<]]
Changed lines 97-98 from:
NiMH batteries are a form of rechargeable batteries that are a great replacement for alkalines or "ni-cads". They come in common sizes such as AAA, AA, C, D, and 9V.
to:
NiMH batteries are a form of rechargeable batteries that are a great replacement for alkalines or "ni-cads". They come in common sizes such as AAA, AA, C, D, and 9V. They're cells are a nominal voltage of 1.2V but when fully charged they approach 1.4-1.5V.
Changed line 128 from:
'''Price:'''$0.35 for a CR2032 with 220mAH. $1.50 for a CR123 with 1,300AH\\
to:
'''Price:'''$0.35 for a CR2032 with 220mAH. $1.50 for a CR123 with 1,300mAH\\
Changed line 60 from:
Power density is the power a battery is able to supply in relation to its weight. The power is measured in watts (W) and is calculated by multiplying voltage by amperage or in this case, the nominal voltage by its capacity. The product is a value in Wh or watt-hours. The weight of a battery is measured in kilograms (kg). So, the power density of a battery can be something like 50Wh/kg. A high number means it can supply a lot of power for its size. Small and powerful is often ideal.\\
to:
Power density is the power a battery is able to supply in relation to its weight. The power is measured in watts (W) and is calculated by multiplying voltage by amperage or in this case, the nominal voltage by its capacity. The product is a value in Wh or watt-hours. The weight of a battery is measured in kilograms (kg). So, the power density of a battery can be something like 50Wh/kg. A high number means it can supply a lot of power for its size. Small and powerful is often ideal. Again, this is not advertised on a battery or its packaging but wikipedia will often give you a rough value.\\
Changed lines 54-55 from:
The power capability of a battery is measured in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coulomb|coulombs] and denoted by a C. You will NOT find this measurement advertised on the battery or its packaging but you can often find a rough estimate online or through wikipedia.\\
to:
The power capability of a battery is measured in [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coulomb|coulombs]] and denoted by a C. You will NOT find this measurement advertised on the battery or its packaging but you can often find a rough estimate online or through wikipedia.\\
\\
Added lines 58-63:
'+Power Density+'

Power density is the power a battery is able to supply in relation to its weight. The power is measured in watts (W) and is calculated by multiplying voltage by amperage or in this case, the nominal voltage by its capacity. The product is a value in Wh or watt-hours. The weight of a battery is measured in kilograms (kg). So, the power density of a battery can be something like 50Wh/kg. A high number means it can supply a lot of power for its size. Small and powerful is often ideal.\\
\\
This measurement is not quite as crucial as the others but will play a role if size and weight is ever an issue with a project.

Changed lines 68-69 from:
Lead Acid batteries usually come in the form of a big, hulky black box. They provide a lot of power, are rechargeable, but they however weight a lot. You can find them most often in automobiles, boats, scooters, motorcycles, etc. Lead acids are made up 2V cells, so you will find them with a voltage in multiples of 2V with the most common ones being 6V, 12V, 18V, and 24V.
to:
Lead Acid batteries usually come in the form of a big, hulking black box. They provide a lot of power, are rechargeable, but they however weight a lot. You can find them most often in automobiles, boats, scooters, motorcycles, etc. Lead acids are made up 2V cells, so you will find them with a voltage in multiples of 2V with the most common ones being 6V, 12V, 18V, and 24V.
Added lines 42-43:
The nominal voltage of a battery is always advertised on the battery itself.
Added lines 50-51:
The capacity of a battery is often advertised on the battery itself or its packaging. It is denoted in mAh or AH. Alkaline batteries and many coin cells however do not advertise this.
Added lines 54-57:
The power capability of a battery is measured in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coulomb|coulombs] and denoted by a C. You will NOT find this measurement advertised on the battery or its packaging but you can often find a rough estimate online or through wikipedia.\\

The power capability speaks to the amount of amperage a battery is comfortable with supplying to a circuit. A coulomb is measured in amps and is proportional to the capacity of the battery. For instance, if a battery has a capacity of 1Ah and its power capability is 0.1C then this battery is comfortable supplying 100mA or less steadily. The power capability is not really a number you will find yourself needing to memorize but it is helpful to have a sense of which batteries are able to supply more or less amperage.

Added lines 43-47:

The capacity of a battery is measured in amp-hours (Ah or mAh for milliamp-hours). For instance, if a 9V NiMH battery has a capacity of 150mAh in theory you can draw a constant 15mA from this battery and it should in theory run for 10 hours. 150mAh / 15mA = 10 hours\\

Keep in mind though, even if this 9V NiMH battery has a capacity of 150mAh it doesn't mean that you will be able to pull 150mA consistently and expect it to run for an hour. This is simply its capacity and does not speak to the power capability of the battery or in other words, how much it is comfortably able to supply.

Added lines 34-44:
!!What to look for

There are three things to consider when looking at which batteries are the best fit for your project: voltage, capacity, and capability.

'+Voltage+'

Do the batteries supply enough voltage to make my electronics happy? All electronics components have a range of voltage in which they are comfortable operating, do these batteries supply a voltage within the range of all my components in the circuit? The most common operating voltages for microcontrollers and digital processors is 5V or 3.3V so this usually makes it easy. If you are not sure what the operating voltage of a particular component is, read its datasheet. [[http://octopart.com/|Octopart]] is your friend.

'+Capacity+'
'+Capability+'

Deleted lines 123-124:
[[<<]]
Changed lines 124-134 from:
[[<<]]
to:
[[<<]]

!!Battery Charging Station

Here at ITP we have three on-floor charging stations for rechargeable batteries.

* NiMH AAA, AA, C and D charger with 8 banks
* NiMH 9 Volt charger with 4 banks
* Lithium-ion charger, for 3.6 Volt rechargeable coin cells ONLY

Check out the notes on the [[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/Parts/RechargeableBatteries|Battery Charging Station]] page.
Changed lines 77-78 from:
Lithium Ion and Lithium Polymer batteries are the newest rechargeables and have found their way into almost every piece of new consumer electronics. They are light weigh and really pack a punch in terms of power capability and density. Both types of battery chemistry require special circuitry for charging. You are unable to purchase Li-ion cells by themselves and will only find them by removing from things like cell phones and camcorders and using the electronics itself as the base charger. You can however purchase LiPo batteries from several distributors. SparkFun also has a nice LiPo charger of their own on the market, SKU [[http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=8293|PRT-08293]].
to:
Lithium Ion and Lithium Polymer batteries are the newest rechargeables and have found their way into almost every piece of new consumer electronics. They are light weigh and really pack a punch in terms of power capability and density. Both types of battery chemistry require special circuitry for charging. You are unable to purchase Li-ion cells by themselves and will only find them by removing from things like cell phones and camcorders and using the electronics itself as the base charger. You can however purchase LiPo batteries from several distributors.

SparkFun also has a nice LiPo charger of their own on the market that I can safely say works quite well, SKU [[http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=8293|PRT-08293]].
Changed lines 77-78 from:
Lithium Ion and Lithium Polymer batteries are the newest rechargeables and have found their way into almost every piece of new consumer electronics. They are light weigh and really pack a punch in terms of power capability and density. Both types of battery chemistry require special circuitry for charging. You are unable to purchase Li-ion cells by themselves and will only find them by removing from things like cell phones and camcorders and using the electronics itself as the base charger. You can however purchase LiPo batteries from certain distributors. SparkFun also has a charger of their own on the market.
to:
Lithium Ion and Lithium Polymer batteries are the newest rechargeables and have found their way into almost every piece of new consumer electronics. They are light weigh and really pack a punch in terms of power capability and density. Both types of battery chemistry require special circuitry for charging. You are unable to purchase Li-ion cells by themselves and will only find them by removing from things like cell phones and camcorders and using the electronics itself as the base charger. You can however purchase LiPo batteries from several distributors. SparkFun also has a nice LiPo charger of their own on the market, SKU [[http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=8293|PRT-08293]].
Changed lines 89-90 from:
Lithium batteries come in 3V cells. Coin cells are often very small and can be found in different battery chemistry, such as alkaline, zinc, and silver oxide with voltages per cell being either 1.5V or 3V. Coin cells are often used for hearing-aids, watches, electronic dog collars, and very low power electronics.  Both come in varying sizes and capacities. Most types of these batteries aren't rechargeable so its very easy to choose them for their small size and burn through them in no time. [[http://www.powerstream.com/|PowerStream]] is the only distributor I'm aware of that sells rechargeable Lithium coin cells in common coin cell sizes and also has a charger available.
to:
Lithium batteries come in 3V cells. Coin cells are often very small and can be found in different battery chemistry, such as alkaline, zinc, and silver oxide with voltages per cell being either 1.5V or 3V. Coin cells are often used for hearing-aids, watches, electronic dog collars, and very low power electronics.  Both come in varying sizes and capacities. Most types of these batteries aren't rechargeable so its very easy to choose them for their small size and burn through them in no time.

[[http://www.powerstream.com/|PowerStream]] is the only distributor I'm aware of that sells rechargeable Lithium coin cells in common coin cell sizes and also has a charger available.
Changed line 94 from:
'''Pros:''' Small, light weight, cheap, high cell voltage, commonly found in stores, stackable, long shelf life\\
to:
'''Pros:''' Small, light weight, cheap, high cell voltage, commonly found in stores, stack-able, long shelf life\\
Changed lines 116-117 from:
Curious how long your Arduino will run off THOSE batteries while also using THAT electronic device? Well, Rob Faludi, being the resourceful man that he is, created tables that answers just those questions. Currently he has a slew of tests results from the Arduino and Xbee. He also has the Arduino and Processing code available if you wish to contribute to the table.
to:
Curious how long your Arduino will run off THOSE batteries while also using THAT electronic device? Well, Rob Faludi, being the resourceful man that he is, created tables that answer just those questions. Currently he has a slew of tests results from the Arduino and Xbee. He also has the Arduino and Processing code available if you wish to contribute to the table.
Added lines 118-119:
[[http://www.faludi.com/projects/arduino-and-xbee-battery-test-results/|Arduino and Xbee Test Results]]
Changed lines 102-103 from:
%rfloat width=200px%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/bodhi_5v2AA.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/bodhi_5v2AA.jpg]]
to:
%rfloat height=200px%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/bodhi_5v2AA.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/bodhi_5v2AA.jpg]]
Added lines 114-117:
!!Battery Tests

Curious how long your Arduino will run off THOSE batteries while also using THAT electronic device? Well, Rob Faludi, being the resourceful man that he is, created tables that answers just those questions. Currently he has a slew of tests results from the Arduino and Xbee. He also has the Arduino and Processing code available if you wish to contribute to the table.

Changed lines 102-105 from:
%lfloat%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/bodhi_5v2AA.jpg.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/bodhi_5v2AA.jpg.jpg]]

[[http://www.bodhilabs.com/ | Bodhi Labs]] is the creator of a variety of step-up battery packs that can either be purchase through their website or they are often in stock at the NYU computer store.
to:
%rfloat width=200px%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/bodhi_5v2AA.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/bodhi_5v2AA.jpg]]

[[http://www.bodhilabs.com/ | Bodhi Labs]] is the creator of a variety of step-up battery packs that can be purchased through their website and are often in stock at the NYU computer store.
Changed lines 112-114 from:
* VPack PCB 1xAA (if you simply want the step-up circuitry to attach to a battery holder of your own or to modify for other desired voltage output)
to:
* VPack PCB 1xAA (if you simply want the step-up circuitry to attach to a battery holder of your own or to modify for other desired voltage output)

[[<<]]
Changed lines 102-103 from:
%lfloat%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_series.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_series.jpg]]
to:
%lfloat%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/bodhi_5v2AA.jpg.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/bodhi_5v2AA.jpg.jpg]]
Added lines 102-103:
%lfloat%[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_series.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_series.jpg]]
Changed lines 98-99 from:
A DC-DC converter is a circuit that converts a source of direct current (DC) from one voltage to another regulated voltage. The voltage of the source can either be boosted to a higher regulated voltage, this type is known as a step-up circuit, or the voltage of the source can be throttled to a lower regulated voltage, this type is known as a step-down circuit.
to:
A DC-DC converter is a circuit that converts a source of direct current (DC) from one voltage to another regulated DC voltage. The voltage of the source can either be boosted to a higher regulated voltage, this type is known as a step-up circuit, or the voltage of the source can be throttled to a lower regulated voltage, this type is known as a step-down circuit.
Changed lines 109-110 from:
* VPack 3.3V 1xAAA Step-Up
to:
* VPack 3.3V 1xAAA Step-Up
* VPack PCB 1xAA (if you simply want the step-up circuitry to attach to a battery holder of your own or to modify for other desired voltage output)
Changed lines 102-109 from:
[[http://www.bodhilabs.com/ | Bodhi Labs]] is the creator of a variety of step-up battery packs that can either be purchase through their website or they often in stock at the NYU computer store.
to:
[[http://www.bodhilabs.com/ | Bodhi Labs]] is the creator of a variety of step-up battery packs that can either be purchase through their website or they are often in stock at the NYU computer store.

* VPack 5.0V 1xAA Step-Up
* VPack 5.0V 2xAA Step-Up
* VPack 5.0V 1xAAA Step-Up
* VPack 5.0V 2xAAA Step-Up
* VPack 3.3V 1xAA Step-Up
* VPack 3.3V 1xAAA Step-Up
Changed lines 100-102 from:
The reason for mentioning this is that very often you will want to run your digital electronics off batteries and yet it's very rare that a battery pack will supply your typical 5V or 3.3V. A DC-DC converter will supply the voltage you need steadily and efficiently.
to:
The reason for mentioning this is that very often you will want to run your digital electronics off batteries and yet it's very rare that a battery pack will supply your typical 5V or 3.3V. A DC-DC converter will supply the voltage you need steadily and efficiently.

[[http://www.bodhilabs.com/ | Bodhi Labs]] is the creator of a variety of step-up battery packs that can either be purchase through their website or they often in stock at the NYU computer store
.
Changed lines 95-100 from:
'''Power Density:''' 270Wh/kg
to:
'''Power Density:''' 270Wh/kg

!! DC-DC Converters
A DC-DC converter is a circuit that converts a source of direct current (DC) from one voltage to another regulated voltage. The voltage of the source can either be boosted to a higher regulated voltage, this type is known as a step-up circuit, or the voltage of the source can be throttled to a lower regulated voltage, this type is known as a step-down circuit.

The reason for mentioning this is that very often you will want to run your digital electronics off batteries and yet it's very rare that a battery pack will supply your typical 5V or 3.3V. A DC-DC converter will supply the voltage you need steadily and efficiently.
Changed lines 89-90 from:
Lithium batteries come in 3V cells. Coin cells are often very small and can be found in different battery chemistry, such as alkaline, zinc, and silver oxide with voltages per cell being either 1.5V or 3V. Coin cells are often used for hearing-aids, watches, electronic dog collars, and very low power electronics.  Both come in varying sizes and capacities. Most types of these batteries aren't rechargeable so its very easy to choose them for their small size and burn through them in no time. PowerStream is the only distributor I'm aware of that sells rechargeable Lithium coin cells in common coin cell sizes and also has a charger available.
to:
Lithium batteries come in 3V cells. Coin cells are often very small and can be found in different battery chemistry, such as alkaline, zinc, and silver oxide with voltages per cell being either 1.5V or 3V. Coin cells are often used for hearing-aids, watches, electronic dog collars, and very low power electronics.  Both come in varying sizes and capacities. Most types of these batteries aren't rechargeable so its very easy to choose them for their small size and burn through them in no time. [[http://www.powerstream.com/|PowerStream]] is the only distributor I'm aware of that sells rechargeable Lithium coin cells in common coin cell sizes and also has a charger available.
Changed lines 89-90 from:
Lithium batteries come in 3V cells. Coin cells are often very small and can be found in different battery chemistry, such as alkaline, zinc, and silver oxide with voltages per cell being either 1.5V or 3V. Coin cells are often used for hearing-aids, watches, electronic dog collars, and very low power electronics.
to:
Lithium batteries come in 3V cells. Coin cells are often very small and can be found in different battery chemistry, such as alkaline, zinc, and silver oxide with voltages per cell being either 1.5V or 3V. Coin cells are often used for hearing-aids, watches, electronic dog collars, and very low power electronics.  Both come in varying sizes and capacities. Most types of these batteries aren't rechargeable so its very easy to choose them for their small size and burn through them in no time. PowerStream is the only distributor I'm aware of that sells rechargeable Lithium coin cells in common coin cell sizes and also has a charger available.
Changed lines 93-94 from:
'''Cons:''' Almost all varieties are non-rechargeable, very low power capability, need special coin cell holders\\
'''Price:'''$10 for a cell\\
to:
'''Cons:''' Almost all varieties are non-rechargeable, very low power capability, need holders\\
'''Price:'''$0.35 for a CR2032 with 220mAH. $1.50 for a CR123 with 1,300AH\\
Changed line 84 from:
'''Price:'''$10 for a cell\\
to:
'''Price:'''$10 for a cell with ~750mAH\\
Changed line 95 from:
'''Power Density:''' 160 Wh/kg for lithium-ion, 30–200 Wh/kg for lithium polymer
to:
'''Power Density:''' 270Wh/kg
Changed lines 89-90 from:

to:
Lithium batteries come in 3V cells. Coin cells are often very small and can be found in different battery chemistry, such as alkaline, zinc, and silver oxide with voltages per cell being either 1.5V or 3V. Coin cells are often used for hearing-aids, watches, electronic dog collars, and very low power electronics.
Changed line 91 from:
'''Power Capability:''' 0.005C - 0.01C
to:
'''Power Capability:''' 0.005C - 0.01C\\
Added lines 79-80:
The cells are 3.6V and are commonly packaged in 3.6V and 7.2V.
Changed lines 87-95 from:
'+Lithium Batteries and Coin Cells+'
to:
'+Lithium Batteries and Coin Cells+'



'''Power Capability:''' 0.005C - 0.01C
'''Pros:''' Small, light weight, cheap, high cell voltage, commonly found in stores, stackable, long shelf life\\
'''Cons:''' Almost all varieties are non-rechargeable, very low power capability, need special coin cell holders\\
'''Price:'''$10 for a cell\\
'''Power Density:''' 160 Wh/kg for lithium-ion, 30–200 Wh/kg for lithium polymer
Changed lines 77-78 from:
NiMH batteries are a form of rechargeable batteries that are a great replacement for alkalines or "ni-cads". They come in common sizes such as AAA, AA, C, D, and 9V.
to:
Lithium Ion and Lithium Polymer batteries are the newest rechargeables and have found their way into almost every piece of new consumer electronics. They are light weigh and really pack a punch in terms of power capability and density. Both types of battery chemistry require special circuitry for charging. You are unable to purchase Li-ion cells by themselves and will only find them by removing from things like cell phones and camcorders and using the electronics itself as the base charger. You can however purchase LiPo batteries from certain distributors. SparkFun also has a charger of their own on the market.
Changed lines 83-84 from:
'''Power Density:''' 30–200 Wh/kg for lithium polymer
to:
'''Power Density:''' 160 Wh/kg for lithium-ion, 30–200 Wh/kg for lithium polymer
Changed line 71 from:
'''Cons:''' Self-discharge quickly (however, there are new low-discharge varieties), expensive\\
to:
'''Cons:''' Self-discharge quickly (however, there are new low-discharge varieties), a bit more expensive than NiCds and alkaline\\
Changed lines 77-84 from:
to:
NiMH batteries are a form of rechargeable batteries that are a great replacement for alkalines or "ni-cads". They come in common sizes such as AAA, AA, C, D, and 9V.

'''Power Capability:''' 1-10C\\
'''Pros:''' Rechargeable, ultra-light, high cell voltage, high power capability, high power density\\
'''Cons:''' Expensive, delicate, require special circuitry for charging, oh, and they can explode if misused\\
'''Price:'''$10 for a cell\\
'''Power Density:''' 30–200 Wh/kg for lithium polymer

Changed lines 67-68 from:
NiMH batteries are a form of rechargeable batteries that are a great replacement for alkalines or "ni-cads".
to:
NiMH batteries are a form of rechargeable batteries that are a great replacement for alkalines or "ni-cads". They come in common sizes such as AAA, AA, C, D, and 9V.

'''Power Capability:''' 0.2C\\
Changed line 71 from:
'''Cons:''' Self-discharge quickly (despite the new low-discharge variety), expensive\\
to:
'''Cons:''' Self-discharge quickly (however, there are new low-discharge varieties), expensive\\
Changed lines 48-49 from:
These probably are the batteries most people are familiar with. They are very common, disposable batteries that can be purchased at just about anywhere. The cells are 1.5V and come in all sizes and shapes that include: coin cells, AAAA, AAA, AA, C, D, 6V lantern batteries, and 9V.
to:
These probably are the batteries most people are familiar with. They are very common, disposable batteries that can be purchased at just about anywhere. The cells are 1.5V and come in all sizes and shapes that include: coin cells, AAA, AA, C, D, 6V lantern batteries, and 9V.
Changed lines 67-68 from:

to:
NiMH batteries are a form of rechargeable batteries that are a great replacement for alkalines or "ni-cads".

'''Pros:''' Rechargeable, high power density, higher power capability than alkalines, common sizes\\
'''Cons:''' Self-discharge quickly (despite the new low-discharge variety), expensive\\
'''Price:'''$2 for a AA with 2,500mAH\\
'''Power Density:''' 100 Wh/kg

Changed lines 44-45 from:
'''Power Density:''' sub $20 for a 12V battery with 7AH
to:
'''Power Density:''' 30-40 Wh/kg
Changed lines 53-54 from:
'''Price:'''$1 for a AA with 3,000mAH
to:
'''Price:'''$1 for a AA with 3,000mAH\\
'''Power Density:''' 100Wh/kg

Changed lines 58-59 from:
NiCd batteries, or "ni-cads" are the first family of small rechargeable batteries. They come in 1.2V cells that approach 1.4V - 1.5V at full charge. They can be found in old wireless phones and remote control cars. They are also available in common sizes like coin cells, AAA, AA, C, D, and 9V. Unfortunately, their toxicity make them a poor alternative to safer and more superior rechargeables like the NiMH.
to:
NiCd batteries, or "ni-cads" are the first family of small rechargeable batteries. They come in 1.2V cells and can be found in packages that are multiples of this. They can be found in old wireless phones and remote control cars. They are also available in common sizes like coin cells, AAA, AA, C, D, and 9V. Unfortunately, their toxicity make them a poor alternative to safer and more superior rechargeables like the NiMH.
Changed lines 43-44 from:
'''Price:''' sub $20 for a 12V battery with 7AH
to:
'''Price:''' sub $20 for a 12V battery with 7AH\\
'''Power Density
:''' sub $20 for a 12V battery with 7AH
Changed lines 61-62 from:
'''Price:'''$1 for a AA with 1,000mAH
to:
'''Price:'''$1 for a AA with 1,000mAH\\
'''Power Density:''' 40–60 Wh/kg

Added line 67:
Changed lines 38-39 from:
Lead Acid batteries usually come in the form of a big, hulky black box. They provide a lot of power, are rechargeable, but they however weight a lot. You can find them most often in automobiles, boats, scooters, motorcycles, etc. Lead acids are made up 2V cells, so you will find them voltages in multiples of 2V with the most common ones being 6V, 12V, 18V, and 24V.
to:
Lead Acid batteries usually come in the form of a big, hulky black box. They provide a lot of power, are rechargeable, but they however weight a lot. You can find them most often in automobiles, boats, scooters, motorcycles, etc. Lead acids are made up 2V cells, so you will find them with a voltage in multiples of 2V with the most common ones being 6V, 12V, 18V, and 24V.
Changed lines 38-39 from:
Lead Acid batteries usually come in the form of a big, hulky black box. They provide a lot of power, are rechargeable, but they however weight a lot. Lead acids are made up 2V cells, so you will find them voltages in multiples of 2V with the most common ones being 6V, 12V, 18V, and 24V.
to:
Lead Acid batteries usually come in the form of a big, hulky black box. They provide a lot of power, are rechargeable, but they however weight a lot. You can find them most often in automobiles, boats, scooters, motorcycles, etc. Lead acids are made up 2V cells, so you will find them voltages in multiples of 2V with the most common ones being 6V, 12V, 18V, and 24V.
Changed lines 56-58 from:
NiCd batteries, or "ni-cads" are the first family of small rechargeable batteries.

'''Power Capability:''' 0
.1C\\
to:
NiCd batteries, or "ni-cads" are the first family of small rechargeable batteries. They come in 1.2V cells that approach 1.4V - 1.5V at full charge. They can be found in old wireless phones and remote control cars. They are also available in common sizes like coin cells, AAA, AA, C, D, and 9V. Unfortunately, their toxicity make them a poor alternative to safer and more superior rechargeables like the NiMH.
Changed lines 59-61 from:
'''Cons:''' Require frequent discharge/recharge to reduce the batteries memory, contain toxic cadmium\\
'''Price:'''$1 for a AA with 3,000mAH
to:
'''Cons:''' Low power density, Require frequent discharge/recharge to reduce the batteries memory, contain toxic cadmium\\
'''Price:'''$1 for a AA with 1,000mAH
Changed lines 56-62 from:
to:
NiCd batteries, or "ni-cads" are the first family of small rechargeable batteries.

'''Power Capability:''' 0.1C\\
'''Pros:''' Rechargeable, cheap, and hold their charge a long time\\
'''Cons:''' Require frequent discharge/recharge to reduce the batteries memory, contain toxic cadmium\\
'''Price:'''$1 for a AA with 3,000mAH

Changed lines 47-48 from:
These probably the batteries most people are familiar with. They are very common, disposable batteries that can be purchased at just about anywhere. The cells are 1.5V and come in all sizes and shapes that include: coin cells, AAAA, AAA, AA, C, D, 6V lantern batteries, and 9V.
to:
These probably are the batteries most people are familiar with. They are very common, disposable batteries that can be purchased at just about anywhere. The cells are 1.5V and come in all sizes and shapes that include: coin cells, AAAA, AAA, AA, C, D, 6V lantern batteries, and 9V.
Changed lines 52-53 from:
'''Price:'''$1 for a AA with 3,000mAH\\
to:
'''Price:'''$1 for a AA with 3,000mAH
Added line 56:
Added line 59:
Added line 62:
Changed lines 47-48 from:
These probably the batteries most people are familiar with. They are very common, disposable batteries that can be purchased at just about anywhere. The cells are 1.5V and come in all sizes and shapes that include: coin cells, AAAA, AAA, AA, C, D, 6V lantern batteries, and 9V. Really, the best part about
to:
These probably the batteries most people are familiar with. They are very common, disposable batteries that can be purchased at just about anywhere. The cells are 1.5V and come in all sizes and shapes that include: coin cells, AAAA, AAA, AA, C, D, 6V lantern batteries, and 9V.
Changed lines 50-53 from:
'''Pros:''' Popular, safe for us, long shelf life, high amp-hours when compared to an equivalent rechargable\\
'''Cons:''' Non-rechargable, low capability\\
'''Price:''' sub $20 for a 12V battery with 7AH\\
to:
'''Pros:''' Popular, safe for us, long shelf life, high amp-hours when compared to an equivalent rechargeable\\
'''Cons:''' Non-rechargable, low capability, and bad for the environment\\
'''Price:'''$1 for a AA with 3,000mAH\\
Deleted lines 44-45:
[[<<]]
Changed lines 43-44 from:
'''Price:''' sub $20 for a 12V battery with 7AH\\
to:
'''Price:''' sub $20 for a 12V battery with 7AH
Added line 46:
Added lines 49-50:
These probably the batteries most people are familiar with. They are very common, disposable batteries that can be purchased at just about anywhere. The cells are 1.5V and come in all sizes and shapes that include: coin cells, AAAA, AAA, AA, C, D, 6V lantern batteries, and 9V. Really, the best part about
Changed line 44 from:
to:
[[<<]]
Changed lines 44-45 from:
[[<<]]
to:
Deleted line 43:
Added lines 45-46:
[[<<]]
Changed line 40 from:
'''Power Capability:''' +10C
to:
'''Power Capability:''' +10C\\
Changed line 42 from:
'''Cons:''' Heavy, large, and toxic.\\
to:
'''Cons:''' Heavy, large, and toxic\\
Added lines 47-51:
'''Power Capability:''' 0.1C\\
'''Pros:''' Popular, safe for us, long shelf life, high amp-hours when compared to an equivalent rechargable\\
'''Cons:''' Non-rechargable, low capability\\
'''Price:''' sub $20 for a 12V battery with 7AH\\

Added line 40:
'''Power Capability:''' +10C
Changed lines 40-43 from:
'''Pros:''' Cheap, powerful, rechargeable, and high power capability
'''Cons:''' Heavy, large, and toxic.
'''Price:''' sub $20 for a 12V battery with 7AH
to:
'''Pros:''' Cheap, powerful, rechargeable, and high power capability\\
'''Cons:''' Heavy, large, and toxic.\\
'''Price:''' sub $20 for a 12V battery with 7AH\\
Added lines 38-43:
Lead Acid batteries usually come in the form of a big, hulky black box. They provide a lot of power, are rechargeable, but they however weight a lot. Lead acids are made up 2V cells, so you will find them voltages in multiples of 2V with the most common ones being 6V, 12V, 18V, and 24V.

'''Pros:''' Cheap, powerful, rechargeable, and high power capability
'''Cons:''' Heavy, large, and toxic.
'''Price:''' sub $20 for a 12V battery with 7AH

Changed lines 34-46 from:
!!Different Kinds
to:
!!Battery Chemistry Types

'+Lead-Acid+'

'+Alkaline+'

'+NiCd (Nickel-Cadmium)+'

'+NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride)+'

'+Li-ion (Lithium-Ion) and Li-Poly (Lithium Polymer)+'

'+Lithium Batteries and Coin Cells+'
Changed lines 28-29 from:
Here it is in detail (1.5V @ (2000mAH + 2000mAH)) + (1.5V @ (2000mAH + 2000mAH)) = 3.0V @ 4000mAH.
to:
Here it is in detail (1.5V @ (2000mAH + 2000mAH)) in series with (1.5V @ (2000mAH + 2000mAH)) = 3.0V @ 4000mAH.
Changed lines 26-27 from:
You can also create a battery pack that is mixes series and parallel configuration. If you know exactly how much voltage you'd like and/or how much capacity you'd like to provide, you can put your batteries in series and parallel to achieve that. The photo below shows two sets of two batteries, first put in parallel and then put in series with each to provide increased voltage AND capacity. Here it is in detail (1.5V @ (2000mAH + 2000mAH)) + (1.5V @ (2000mAH + 2000mAH)) = 3.0V @ 4000mAH.
to:
You can also create a battery pack that is mixes series and parallel configuration. If you know exactly how much voltage you'd like and/or how much capacity you'd like to provide, you can put your batteries in series and parallel to achieve that. The photo below shows two sets of two batteries, first put in parallel and then put in series with each to provide increased voltage AND capacity.

Here it is in detail (1.5V @ (2000mAH + 2000mAH)) + (1.5V @ (2000mAH + 2000mAH)) = 3.0V @ 4000mAH.
Added lines 26-27:
You can also create a battery pack that is mixes series and parallel configuration. If you know exactly how much voltage you'd like and/or how much capacity you'd like to provide, you can put your batteries in series and parallel to achieve that. The photo below shows two sets of two batteries, first put in parallel and then put in series with each to provide increased voltage AND capacity. Here it is in detail (1.5V @ (2000mAH + 2000mAH)) + (1.5V @ (2000mAH + 2000mAH)) = 3.0V @ 4000mAH.
Added lines 26-27:
[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_mixedconfig.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_mixedconfig.jpg]]
Added lines 24-25:
'+Mixing Series and Parallel+'
Changed lines 24-25 from:
to:
[[<<]]
Added line 24:
Changed lines 22-24 from:
NOTE: Never build a battery pack consisting of different kinds of batteries (different form factors, different chemistries), for example: NiMH with Alkaline, Lithium Polymer with Lead Acid, Lithium with Alkaline, coin cells with AAs, AAAs with Ds, and so on.
to:
NOTE: Never build a battery pack consisting of different kinds of batteries (different form factors, different chemistries), for example: NiMH with Alkaline, Lithium Polymer with Lead Acid, Lithium with Alkaline, coin cells with AAs, AAAs with Ds, and so on.

!!Different Kinds
Changed line 22 from:
NOTE: Never build a battery pack consisting of different kinds of batteries, for example: NiMH with Alkaline, Lithium Polymer with Lead Acid, Lithium with Alkaline, coin cells with AAs, AAAs with Ds, and so on.
to:
NOTE: Never build a battery pack consisting of different kinds of batteries (different form factors, different chemistries), for example: NiMH with Alkaline, Lithium Polymer with Lead Acid, Lithium with Alkaline, coin cells with AAs, AAAs with Ds, and so on.
Added lines 12-13:
[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_series.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_series.jpg]]
Added lines 18-19:
[[http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_parallel.jpg | http://itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/uploads/battery_parallel.jpg]]
Changed lines 16-18 from:
For example, if two NiMH AA batteries (~1.5V @ 2000mAH) are wired in parallel you will have a battery pack capable of supplying 1.5V @ 4000mAH. 2000mAH + 2000 mAH = 4000mAH
to:
For example, if two NiMH AA batteries (~1.5V @ 2000mAH) are wired in parallel you will have a battery pack capable of supplying 1.5V @ 4000mAH. 2000mAH + 2000 mAH = 4000mAH

NOTE: Never build a battery pack consisting of different kinds of batteries, for example: NiMH with Alkaline, Lithium Polymer with Lead Acid, Lithium with Alkaline, coin cells with AAs, AAAs with Ds, and so on.
Changed lines 6-8 from:
'+Connecting in series+'\\
Connecting batteries in series will cause the voltages of each of your batteries to be additive while the amperage or capacity will stay the same. To wire your batteries in series, you connect the positive terminal of one battery to the negative terminal of the next battery. For example, if two NiMH AA batteries (~1.5V @ 2000mAH) are wired in series you will have a battery pack capable of supplying 3V @ 2000mAH. 1.5V + 1.5V = 3V
to:
'+Connecting in series+'

Connecting batteries in series will cause the voltages of each of your batteries to be additive while the amperage or capacity will stay the same. To wire your batteries in series, you connect the positive terminal of one battery to the negative terminal of the next battery.

For example, if two NiMH AA batteries (~1.5V @ 2000mAH) are wired in series you will have a battery pack capable of supplying 3V @ 2000mAH. 1.5V + 1.5V = 3V
Added line 13:
Changed lines 7-9 from:
Connecting batteries in series will cause the voltages of each of your batteries to be additive, but the amperage or capacity will stay the same. To wire your batteries in series, you connect the positive terminal of one battery to the negative terminal of the next battery. For example, if two NiMH AA batteries (~1.5V @ 2000mAH) are wired in series you will have a battery pack capable of supplying 3V @ 2000mAH. 1.5V + 1.5V = 3V

'+Connecting in parallel+'
to:
Connecting batteries in series will cause the voltages of each of your batteries to be additive while the amperage or capacity will stay the same. To wire your batteries in series, you connect the positive terminal of one battery to the negative terminal of the next battery. For example, if two NiMH AA batteries (~1.5V @ 2000mAH) are wired in series you will have a battery pack capable of supplying 3V @ 2000mAH. 1.5V + 1.5V = 3V

'+Connecting in parallel+'
Connecting batteries in parallel will cause the amperage or capacity of your batteries to be additive while the voltage will stay the same. To wire your batteries in parallel, you connect the positive terminal of one battery to the positive terminal of the next battery, and the negative terminal of the first battery to the negative terminal of the second. In other words, you will connect "like" terminals. Positive to positive and negative to negative.\\
\\
For example, if two NiMH AA batteries (~1.5V @ 2000mAH) are wired in parallel you will have a battery pack capable of supplying 1.5V @ 4000mAH. 2000mAH + 2000 mAH = 4000mAH
Changed lines 7-8 from:
Connecting batteries in series will cause the voltages of each of your batteries to be additive, but the amperage or capacity of your battery pack will stay the same. To wire your batteries in series, you connect the positive terminal of one battery to the negative terminal of the next battery. For example, if two NiMH AA batteries (~1.5V @ 2000mAH) are wired in series you will have a battery pack capable of supplying 3V @ 2000mAH. 1.5V + 1.5V = 3V
to:
Connecting batteries in series will cause the voltages of each of your batteries to be additive, but the amperage or capacity will stay the same. To wire your batteries in series, you connect the positive terminal of one battery to the negative terminal of the next battery. For example, if two NiMH AA batteries (~1.5V @ 2000mAH) are wired in series you will have a battery pack capable of supplying 3V @ 2000mAH. 1.5V + 1.5V = 3V
Changed line 6 from:
'+Connecting in series+'
to:
'+Connecting in series+'\\
Changed lines 3-4 from:
There are two different ways of configuring your own battery pack.
to:
There are two different ways of configuring your own battery pack.\\
Changed lines 6-8 from:
'-Connecting in series-'

'-
Connecting in parallel-'
to:
'+Connecting in series+'
Connecting batteries in series will cause the voltages of each of your batteries to be additive, but the amperage or capacity of your battery pack will stay the same. To wire your batteries in series, you connect the positive terminal of one battery to the negative terminal of the next battery. For example, if two NiMH AA batteries (~1.5V @ 2000mAH) are wired in series you will have a battery pack capable of supplying 3V @ 2000mAH. 1.5V + 1.5V = 3V

'+Connecting in parallel+
'
Changed lines 5-9 from:
You can either connect them to maximize your voltage output or you can connect them to maximize the overall amperage or capacity of your battery pack.
to:
You can either connect them to maximize your voltage output or you can connect them to maximize the overall amperage or capacity of your battery pack.

'-Connecting in series-'

'-Connecting in parallel-'
Changed lines 3-5 from:
There are two different ways of configuring your own battery pack. You can connect them in order to maximize your voltage or you can connect them in order to maximize the amperage or capacity.
to:
There are two different ways of configuring your own battery pack.

You
can either connect them to maximize your voltage output or you can connect them to maximize the overall amperage or capacity of your battery pack.
Changed lines 1-3 from:
!! How to configure them
to:
!! How to configure them

There are two different ways of configuring your own battery pack. You can connect them in order to maximize your voltage or you can connect them in order to maximize the amperage or capacity.
Added line 1:
!! How to configure them
  Edit | View | History | Print | Recent Changes | Search Page last modified on April 19, 2011, at 09:17 PM