Reports.TemperatureSensor History

Hide minor edits - Show changes to output

Added lines 107-143:
Here's the fill code for this version, in PicBasic Pro:
[@
DEFINE ADC_BITS 10 ' Set number of bits in result
DEFINE ADC_CLOCK 3 ' Set clock source (3=rc)
DEFINE ADC_SAMPLEUS 50 ' Set sampling time in uS

adcVar var WORD
temp var word
inByte Var Byte

'it was portb.0 and port.1
tx var portb.0
rx var portb.1

n9600 con 16468

TRISA = %11111111 ' Set PORTA to all input
ADCON1 = %10000010 ' Set up ADCON1

pause 500

Main:
' wait for an instruction from the remote computer to read:
serin2 rx, n9600 ,[inByte]
' read the sensor through the ADC:
ADCin 0, adcVar
' convert the reading to a temperature value:
temp = 5 * adcVar/ 10
serout2 tx, n9600, ["temp ", DEC temp ,13, 10]
Goto main





@]
Changed line 86 from:
Convert version of Toms code.
to:
Changed line 11 from:
There are many methods to get the temperture and each has various [[ http://www.temperatures.com/applications.html | applications ]] as well.
to:
There are many methods to get the temperture and each has various [[ http://www.temperatures.com/applications.html | applications ]].
Changed lines 17-19 from:
National Semiconductor provides a very clear [[ http://www.national.com/appinfo/tempsensors/files/temphb.pdf | LM series application notes ]] as well
to:
National Semiconductor provides a very clear [[ http://www.national.com/appinfo/tempsensors/files/temphb.pdf | LM series application notes ]]
Changed lines 23-24 from:
the temperature sensor come with different types as well
to:
the temperature sensor come with different types
Changed lines 45-51 from:
!!!!!1.)
Protect the electronics from
overheating, ex:Semiconductor devices and LCDs (Liquid Crystal Displays) better battery performance

!!!!!2.)
To enhance computer system
reliability, - activate a cooling fan, slow down the system clock, or shut the system down completely if the processor gets too hot.
to:
!!!!!1.)Protect the electronics from overheating,
ex: Semiconductor devices and LCDs (Liquid Crystal Displays) better battery performance

!!!!!2.)To enhance computer system reliability,
ex: activate a cooling fan, slow down the system clock, or shut the system down completely if the processor gets too hot.
Changed lines 116-117 from:
p.s. in any case you want to amplify it[[ http://www.hometoys.com/htinews/dec99/articles/hansen/hansen.htm | hometoys.com ]] gives a clear description
to:
p.s. in any case you want to amplify it, [[ http://www.hometoys.com/htinews/dec99/articles/hansen/hansen.htm | hometoys.com ]] gives a clear description
Changed lines 9-48 from:
!!!!Type of temperature sensing and applications:




A very clear, complete application note form National Semiconductor it self.:
http://www.national.com/appinfo/tempsensors/files/temphb.pdf

if using different temperature sensing technology has a good reference on different technology
http://www.temperatures.com/applications.html

ex
Thermal Imaging: Thermography, Thermology and Night Vision C
(camouflage for military use, key out noise background SARS
detects, live detects),
http://www.thermalwave.com/


Inferred
http:
//www.temperatures.com/rtapps.html



Except for the temperature sensor IC, there are also Thermally Sensitive Resistance (thermistor), Resistance Temperature DetectorsThermal Coupleinfrared

RTD- http://www.omega.com/rtd.html

other sensors type

http://www.ueonline.com/products/fp_tempsensors.htm#thermo


||border=1 width=70%
||!Traditional verification||!Identification||
|| Binary || Pattern Recognition
||
|| Password, Pin
, Biometric || Biometric ||
|| Yes/no || Score (degree of correlation between the match template and the reference template)||
|| 1
:1 || 1:Many ||

|| "Are you whom you claim to be?" || "Who are you?" ||
to:
!!!!Types of temperature sensing:

There are many methods to get the temperture and each has various [[ http://www.temperatures.com/applications.html | applications ]] as well.

For example:
Thermal Imaging (Thermography, Thermology and Night Vision)
could be used to camouflage for military use, key out noise background, SARS heat detects application, live
detects)

National Semiconductor provides a very clear [[
http://www.national.com/appinfo/tempsensors/files/temphb.pdf | LM series application notes ]] as well


Except for the temperature sensor IC, there are also Thermally Sensitive Resistance (thermistor), [[
http://www.omega.com/rtd.html | Resistance Temperature Detectors ]], Thermal Couple, [[ http://www.temperatures.com/rtapps.html | infrared ]],
\\

the temperature sensor come with different types as well

http://www.ueonline.com/img/Terminal-head.jpg http://www.ueonline.com/img/Process-mount.jpg http://www.ueonline.com/img/Sensor-Plug.jpg http://www.ueonline.com/img/Surface-mount.jpg
Terminal-head , Process-mount, Sensor-Plug, Surface-mount

pictures from [[ http
://www.ueonline.com/products/fp_tempsensors.htm#thermo | ueonline.com ]]
Changed lines 95-96 from:
Adjust the potentiometer until you have a reading with your voltmeter of +2.55 volts from the potentiometer wiper to ground. Then connect the wiper to the pic, and the remaining terminals as shown above. Since the LM34 will output a voltage of 10 millivolts per F, we can set reference port as the +Vref at 2.55V, and each ADC unit will = 2.55V/255 = 0.01V = 10 mV. With chosen reference port as +Vref, and our + reference set to ''''2.55V'''', each ADC unit will = 1F. This limits the upper range, but for a household application it's more than enough range.
to:
Adjust the potentiometer until you have a reading with your voltmeter of +2.55 volts from the potentiometer wiper to ground. Then connect the wiper to the pic, and the remaining terminals as shown above. Since the LM34 will output a voltage of 10 millivolts per F, we can set reference port as the +Vref at 2.55V, and each ADC unit will = 2.55V/255 = 0.01V = 10 mV. With chosen reference port as +Vref, and our + reference set to ''''2.55V'''', each ADC unit will = 1F. This limits the upper range, but for a household application it's more than enough range.
Changed lines 100-101 from:
'''''Vout = + 10.0 mV / F = + 0.01 V/ F ==> F = Vout / +0.01V'''''
to:
'''''Vout = + 10.0 mV / F= + 0.01 V/ F ==> F = Vout / +0.01 V'''''
Changed lines 116-117 from:
p.s. in any case you want to amplify it[[http://www.hometoys.com/htinews/dec99/articles/hansen/hansen.htm | hometoys.com ]] gives a clear description
to:
p.s. in any case you want to amplify it[[ http://www.hometoys.com/htinews/dec99/articles/hansen/hansen.htm | hometoys.com ]] gives a clear description
Changed lines 11-16 from:
This kind of temp IC sensor is usually used to:
1.) Protect the electronics from overheating, ex:Semiconductor devices and LCDs (Liquid Crystal Displays) better battery performance

2.) To enhance computer system reliability, - activate a cooling fan, slow down the system clock, or shut the system down completely if the processor gets too hot.
to:
Changed lines 20-23 from:
Thermal Imaging: Thermography, Thermology and Night Vision
(camouflage for military use, key out noise background SARS detects, live detects),
to:
Thermal Imaging: Thermography, Thermology and Night Vision C
(camouflage for military use, key out noise background SARS detects, live detects),
Changed lines 23-27 from:
Inferred: http://www.temperatures.com/rtapps.html
to:


Inferred
http://www.temperatures.com/rtapps.html



Except for the temperature sensor IC, there are also Thermally Sensitive Resistance (thermistor), Resistance Temperature DetectorsThermal Coupleinfrared

RTD- http://www.omega.com/rtd.html

other sensors type
http://www.ueonline.com/products/fp_tempsensors.htm#thermo


||border=1 width=70%
||!Traditional verification||!Identification||
|| Binary || Pattern Recognition ||
|| Password, Pin, Biometric || Biometric ||
|| Yes/no || Score (degree of correlation between the match template and the reference template)||
|| 1:1 || 1:Many ||

|| "Are you whom you claim to be?" || "Who are you?" ||
Changed lines 58-60 from:
to:
!!!!Typical Applications
This kind of temp IC sensor is usually used to:

!!!!!1.)
Protect the electronics from overheating, ex:Semiconductor devices and LCDs (Liquid Crystal Displays) better battery performance

!!!!!2.)
To enhance computer system reliability, - activate a cooling fan, slow down the system clock, or shut the system down completely if the processor gets too hot.
Changed lines 70-71 from:
Vout = + 10.0 mV / F
to:
'''''Vout = + 10.0 mV / F '''''
Changed line 102 from:
Convert version of Toms code.
to:
Convert version of Toms code.
Changed lines 110-114 from:
1.) use Vref pin
Adjust the potentiometer until you have a reading with your voltmeter of +2.55 volts from the potentiometer wiper to ground. Then connect the wiper to the pic, and the remaining terminals as shown above. Since the LM34 will output a voltage of 10 millivolts per F, we can set reference port as the +Vref at 2.55V, and each ADC unit will = 2.55V/255 = 0.01V = 10 mV. With chosen reference port as +Vref, and our + reference set to 2.55V, each ADC unit will = 1F. This limits the upper range, but for a household application it's more than enough range.

2.) convert in code
to:
!!!!!1.) use Vref pin
Adjust the potentiometer until you have a reading with your voltmeter of +2.55 volts from the potentiometer wiper to ground. Then connect the wiper to the pic, and the remaining terminals as shown above. Since the LM34 will output a voltage of 10 millivolts per F, we can set reference port as the +Vref at 2.55V, and each ADC unit will = 2.55V/255 = 0.01V = 10 mV. With chosen reference port as +Vref, and our + reference set to ''''2.55V'''', each ADC unit will = 1F. This limits the upper range, but for a household application it's more than enough range.

!!!!!2.) convert in code
Changed lines 116-117 from:
Vout = + 10.0 mV / F = + 0.01 V/ F => F = Vout / +0.01V
to:
'''''Vout = + 10.0 mV / F = + 0.01 V/ F ==> F = Vout / +0.01V'''''
Changed lines 121-122 from:
Temp = 5 * adcVar * 100 / 1024
to:
'''''Temp = 5 * adcVar * 100 / 1024'''''
Changed lines 125-304 from:
3.) use ADC convertor

a detail document from parallax.com shows you how (plus a Remote temperature sensor circuit sample)
http://www.parallax.com/dl/docs/cols/nv/vol1/col/nv29.pdf


however, National Semiconductor does have digital temperature sensors......

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^6
Physiological and Behavioral

||border=1 width=50%
||!Physiological||!Behavioral||
|| Iris || Signature ||
|| Fingerprint || Keystroke ||

|| Hand (including knuckle, palm, vascular) || Voice ||

|| Face || Gait ||

|| Voice || Mouse Dynamics ||

|| Retina || e.g. ||

|| DNA Pattern || ||

|| Odor, Earlobe, Sweat pore, Lips || ||

|| Skin Spectrum || ||

|| e.g. || ||


Biometrics can moreover be defined as either '''Active''', or '''Passive'''.

'''Active biometrics''': (require person cooperation and will not work if they deny their participation in the process)
*Fingerprint
*Hand geometry
*Retina scanning
*Signature recognition

'''Passive biometrics''': (do not require user's participation and can be successful without a person even knowing that they have been analyzed)
*Voice recognition
*Iris recognition
*Facial recognition

!!!!Verification or Identification:
Basically, a biometric system is a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pattern_recognition|'''pattern recognition''']] system which makes a personal identification by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological or behavioral characteristic possessed by the user. An important issue in designing a practical system is to determine how an individual is identified. Depending on the context, a biometric system can be either a '''verification''' system or an '''identification''' system.

||border=1 width=70%
||!Traditional verification||!Identification||
|| Binary || Pattern Recognition ||
|| Password, Pin, Biometric || Biometric ||
|| Yes/no || Score (degree of correlation between the match template and the reference template)||
|| 1:1 || 1:Many ||

|| "Are you whom you claim to be?" || "Who are you?" ||


!!!!Working Process:
Enrollment --> Submission --> Acquisition device --> Biometric sample --> Feature extraction --> Template --> Matching --> Score --> Threshold --> Decision

||border=1 width=90%
||! Technology ||! Biometric Sample ||! Feature Extracted ||
||! Fingerprint || Fingerprint image || Location and direction of ridge endings and bifurcations on fingerprint ||
||! Voice recognition || Voice recording || Frequency, cadence and duration of vocal pattern ||
||! Facial recognition || Facial Image || Relative position and shape of nose, position of cheekbones ||
||! Iris-scan || Iris Image || Furrows and striations in iris ||

||! Retina-scan || Retina Image || Blood vessel patterns on retina ||

||! Hand geometry || 3-D image of top and sides of hand and fingers Height and width of bones and joints in hands and fingers || Height and width of bones and joints in hands and fingers ||

||! Signature-scan || Image of signature and record of related dynamics measurements || Speed, stroke order, pressure, and appearance of signature ||
||!Keystroke-scan || Recording of characters typed and record of related dynamics measurements || Keyed sequence, duration between characters ||


!!!!Applications (in general):
*Time Attendance
*Access control
*Identification card
*Immigration checks
*Police records
*Customer identification, Loyalty programs
*Security systems
*Patient management in hospitals
*Public welfare programs management
*Preventing identity theft
*Membership management in clubs, libraries etc.
*Enterprise network security
*Transaction management
*Banking, ATMs

!!!!Example Applications

'''Siemens ID Mouse'''

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/2.jpg


http://www.unmodern.com/pics/1.jpg
I couldn't use this mouse with my PC. I guess that it's because I use window XP, but the driver that I have (version 4) is for window98, window 2000, window NT only.

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/3.jpg

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/4.jpg
The fingerprint sensor which is used for this mouse is Infineon FingerTIP.



!!!!Demonstration Application Note:

'''Idea:''' To experiment using an infrared camera as a sensor for a simple shape recognition system to identify each different user in my apartment

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/sc1.jpg
screenshot from my prototype

For the demonstration application for this report, I tried to experiment the simple prototype of the simple indentification system based on shape recognition by using infrared web camera with Max/Jitter.

'''Hardware:'''
*Infrared Web Camera
*Computer
*Incandescent Lamp
*Controlled Environment Space

'''Software'''
*Max/Jitter + cv.jit


The key of this system is cv.jit.undergrad which provides the simple pattern recognition algorithm object for using in max environment. (This is a realy great computer vision object.)

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/infraredwebcam.jpg
The infrared camera that I modified from a logitech web camera.

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/infraredwebcam2.jpg

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/environmentsetup.jpg
Using incandescent lamp to set the lighting in the environment (I need IR light from incandescent lamp for this prototype.)

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/environmentsetup2.jpg

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/usertesting2.jpg
User testing



(More details soon)



'''Future works:'''

The reason that I chose to report about biometrics is because I would like to study the basic idea behind this system before using it in my independent study project, which is about the scenario planning for the future of personal space. I plan to apply biometric system to the architectural and spatial design in my next projects as well (about the space that has memories.)



!!!!Note:
From this study, I found that,generally, biometric is in a subset of the "sensor + pattern recognition". Most of biometrics require using pattern recognition system with the sensor to identify the individual. However, the potential of pattern recognition is not just for the biometrics or the security applications, there are many kinds of products which use this pattern recognition system as well (e.g. robot, performance/sport practice instrument, or game controller.) Personally, I am really interested in using simple pattern recognition with sensor to develop my future projects. Personally, this is a new world for me, and I wish I will be able to understand more about pattern recognition in near future (I wish.)


!!!!! More Resources:

[[http://www.biometrics.dod.mil/bio101/index.aspx | High-level overview of biometric technologies]](by National Defense University, Fort McNair, Washington, DC. )

[[http://www.itl.nist.gov/div893/biometrics/index.html | The Biometrics Resource Center, National Institute of Standards and Technology ]]

[[http://computer.howstuffworks.com/fingerprint-scanner.htm | How fingerprint scanner works (www.howstuffworks.com)]]

[[http://www.barcode.ro| Rosystem ]]

[[http://mathworld.wolfram.com/StandardDeviation.html | Standard Deviation(mathworld) ]]

[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_deviation | Standard Deviation(wikipedia)]]


!!!!! Acknowledgements:
I would like to thank Mr. Jean-Marc Pelletier, IAMAS. for the very helpful information about cv.jit.undergrad, and Tom Igoe for lending me a Siemens ID mouse.
to:
!!!!!3.) use ADC convertor

[[http://www.parallax.com/dl/docs/cols/nv/vol1/col/nv29.pdf | a detail document from parallax.com ]] shows you how (plus a Remote temperature sensor circuit sample)


\\
\\
p.s. in any case you want to amplify it[[http://www.hometoys.com/htinews/dec99/articles/hansen/hansen.htm | hometoys.com ]] gives a clear description

also, National Semiconductor does have digital temperature sensors......


\\
\\
\\
\\

!!!!Not really Typical Behavior

http://notsimplyyes.com/SW/LM34_pic/picture.jpg
\\
http://notsimplyyes.com/SW/LM34_pic/picture2.jpg


\\
\\

!!!!Application Notes

If the air temperature were much higher or lower than the surface temperature, the actual temperature of the LM34 die would be at an intermediate temperature between the surface temperature and the air temperature. This is especially true for the TO-92 plastic package, where the copper leads are the principal thermal path to carry heat into the device, so its temperature might be closer to the air temperature than to the surface temperature.


Changed lines 11-32 from:
to:
This kind of temp IC sensor is usually used to:
1.) Protect the electronics from overheating, ex:Semiconductor devices and LCDs (Liquid Crystal Displays) better battery performance

2.) To enhance computer system reliability, - activate a cooling fan, slow down the system clock, or shut the system down completely if the processor gets too hot.


A very clear, complete application note form National Semiconductor it self.: http://www.national.com/appinfo/tempsensors/files/temphb.pdf

if using different temperature sensing technology has a good reference on different technology
http://www.temperatures.com/applications.html

ex
Thermal Imaging: Thermography, Thermology and Night Vision
(camouflage for military use, key out noise background SARS detects, live detects),


http://www.thermalwave.com/
Inferred: http://www.temperatures.com/rtapps.html


Changed lines 39-45 from:
[[http://www.national.com/pf/LM/LM34.html | LM34 & others free samples ]](signup with educational email to get free samples)




to:

[[http://www.national.com/pf/LM/LM34.html | order free samples ]](signup with educational email to get free samples)




!!!!Electrical Characteristics

Vout = + 10.0 mV / F

The LM34 can be applied easily in the same way as other integrated-circuit temperature sensors. It can be glued or cemented to a surface and its temperature will be within about 0.02F of the surface temperature. This presumes that the ambient air temperature is almost the same as the surface temperature.

The LM34 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of 1⁄2F at room temperature and 11⁄2F over a full −50 to +300F temperature range.
LM35 serves the same purpose in degrees Celsius.

http://notsimplyyes.com/SW/LM34_pic/output_chart.jpg




!!!!Pin Descriptions

http://notsimplyyes.com/SW/LM34_pic/pin.jpg

LM34 is a three pin device; one for supply voltage, one for ground, and one for output. Connections are as shown in the diagram at right. The three wire interface used to operate the LM34 can be run more than a hundred feet without significant signal degradation. It is a good idea to add a 0.1 uF capacitor connected at the ADC circuit. This helps improve the stability of the measurement by reducing the effects of noise picked up on the Signal line.




!!!!Microcontroller Connections

To put a capacitor between the power and the ground pin of LM34 is suggested. In my case, I put a 0.1uF capacitor.
For pic, I use 16F819, there is no serial out pin description on the datasheet. However, I found RB0- RB3 works fine.

http://notsimplyyes.com/SW/LM34_pic/LM34-16F819-diagram.jpg




!!!!Code Sample
Convert version of Toms code.
Here's a PicBasic Pro code sample for the 16F819 and processing datalogging




!!!!Output the real temperature value in Fahrenheit/ Celsius.

1.) use Vref pin
Adjust the potentiometer until you have a reading with your voltmeter of +2.55 volts from the potentiometer wiper to ground. Then connect the wiper to the pic, and the remaining terminals as shown above. Since the LM34 will output a voltage of 10 millivolts per F, we can set reference port as the +Vref at 2.55V, and each ADC unit will = 2.55V/255 = 0.01V = 10 mV. With chosen reference port as +Vref, and our + reference set to 2.55V, each ADC unit will = 1F. This limits the upper range, but for a household application it's more than enough range.

2.) convert in code

from the datasheet we know that
Vout = + 10.0 mV / F = + 0.01 V/ F => F = Vout / +0.01V
So if our read-in adcVar is set to word ranges from 1-1024; corresponding to the 5 Volts applied to the sensor in the circuit,
apply formula like this will give you a real reading of degree Fahrenheit

Temp = 5 * adcVar * 100 / 1024

http://notsimplyyes.com/SW/LM34_pic/real_degree.jpg

3.) use ADC convertor

a detail document from parallax.com shows you how (plus a Remote temperature sensor circuit sample)
http://www.parallax.com/dl/docs/cols/nv/vol1/col/nv29.pdf


however, National Semiconductor does have digital temperature sensors......

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^6
Added lines 1-195:
(Initial report by [[~hhh214 | Hsiao-Ho Hsu]], 11/28/05)


!!!!Overview on temperature :

"Temperature is the most often-measured environmental quantity. This might be expected since most physical, electronic, chemical, mechanical and biological systems are affected by temperature. Some processes work well only within a narrow range of temperatures; certain chemical reactions, biological processes, and even electronic circuits perform best within limited temperature ranges. When these processes need to be optimized, control systems that keep temperature within specified limits are often used. Temperature sensors provide inputs to those control systems."


!!!!Type of temperature sensing and applications:


!!!!Overview on LM34 IC sensor:

LM34 and LM35 IC temperature sensors made by National Semiconductor are simple three-terminal devices. Connect one pin to +5 to +20 volts, and another to ground. The voltage at the output terminal will be proportional to the temperature to the tune of 0.01 volt (10 millivolts) per degree. For example, if the temperature is 68 degrees, the output will be 0.68 V. In the case of the LM34, the output corresponds to degrees Fahrenheit; the LM35, degrees Celsius. Because of the direct relationship between temperature and voltage, you must have a negative supply voltage or some additional components in order to measure subzero temperatures


[[http://www.national.com/ds/LM/LM34.pdf | LM34 datasheet]](by National Semiconductor)
[[http://www.national.com/pf/LM/LM34.html | LM34 & others free samples ]](signup with educational email to get free samples)






Physiological and Behavioral

||border=1 width=50%
||!Physiological||!Behavioral||
|| Iris || Signature ||
|| Fingerprint || Keystroke ||

|| Hand (including knuckle, palm, vascular) || Voice ||

|| Face || Gait ||

|| Voice || Mouse Dynamics ||

|| Retina || e.g. ||

|| DNA Pattern || ||

|| Odor, Earlobe, Sweat pore, Lips || ||

|| Skin Spectrum || ||

|| e.g. || ||


Biometrics can moreover be defined as either '''Active''', or '''Passive'''.

'''Active biometrics''': (require person cooperation and will not work if they deny their participation in the process)
*Fingerprint
*Hand geometry
*Retina scanning
*Signature recognition

'''Passive biometrics''': (do not require user's participation and can be successful without a person even knowing that they have been analyzed)
*Voice recognition
*Iris recognition
*Facial recognition

!!!!Verification or Identification:
Basically, a biometric system is a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pattern_recognition|'''pattern recognition''']] system which makes a personal identification by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological or behavioral characteristic possessed by the user. An important issue in designing a practical system is to determine how an individual is identified. Depending on the context, a biometric system can be either a '''verification''' system or an '''identification''' system.

||border=1 width=70%
||!Traditional verification||!Identification||
|| Binary || Pattern Recognition ||
|| Password, Pin, Biometric || Biometric ||
|| Yes/no || Score (degree of correlation between the match template and the reference template)||
|| 1:1 || 1:Many ||

|| "Are you whom you claim to be?" || "Who are you?" ||


!!!!Working Process:
Enrollment --> Submission --> Acquisition device --> Biometric sample --> Feature extraction --> Template --> Matching --> Score --> Threshold --> Decision

||border=1 width=90%
||! Technology ||! Biometric Sample ||! Feature Extracted ||
||! Fingerprint || Fingerprint image || Location and direction of ridge endings and bifurcations on fingerprint ||
||! Voice recognition || Voice recording || Frequency, cadence and duration of vocal pattern ||
||! Facial recognition || Facial Image || Relative position and shape of nose, position of cheekbones ||
||! Iris-scan || Iris Image || Furrows and striations in iris ||

||! Retina-scan || Retina Image || Blood vessel patterns on retina ||

||! Hand geometry || 3-D image of top and sides of hand and fingers Height and width of bones and joints in hands and fingers || Height and width of bones and joints in hands and fingers ||

||! Signature-scan || Image of signature and record of related dynamics measurements || Speed, stroke order, pressure, and appearance of signature ||
||!Keystroke-scan || Recording of characters typed and record of related dynamics measurements || Keyed sequence, duration between characters ||


!!!!Applications (in general):
*Time Attendance
*Access control
*Identification card
*Immigration checks
*Police records
*Customer identification, Loyalty programs
*Security systems
*Patient management in hospitals
*Public welfare programs management
*Preventing identity theft
*Membership management in clubs, libraries etc.
*Enterprise network security
*Transaction management
*Banking, ATMs

!!!!Example Applications

'''Siemens ID Mouse'''

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/2.jpg


http://www.unmodern.com/pics/1.jpg
I couldn't use this mouse with my PC. I guess that it's because I use window XP, but the driver that I have (version 4) is for window98, window 2000, window NT only.

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/3.jpg

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/4.jpg
The fingerprint sensor which is used for this mouse is Infineon FingerTIP.



!!!!Demonstration Application Note:

'''Idea:''' To experiment using an infrared camera as a sensor for a simple shape recognition system to identify each different user in my apartment

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/sc1.jpg
screenshot from my prototype

For the demonstration application for this report, I tried to experiment the simple prototype of the simple indentification system based on shape recognition by using infrared web camera with Max/Jitter.

'''Hardware:'''
*Infrared Web Camera
*Computer
*Incandescent Lamp
*Controlled Environment Space

'''Software'''
*Max/Jitter + cv.jit


The key of this system is cv.jit.undergrad which provides the simple pattern recognition algorithm object for using in max environment. (This is a realy great computer vision object.)

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/infraredwebcam.jpg
The infrared camera that I modified from a logitech web camera.

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/infraredwebcam2.jpg

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/environmentsetup.jpg
Using incandescent lamp to set the lighting in the environment (I need IR light from incandescent lamp for this prototype.)

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/environmentsetup2.jpg

http://www.unmodern.com/pics/usertesting2.jpg
User testing



(More details soon)



'''Future works:'''

The reason that I chose to report about biometrics is because I would like to study the basic idea behind this system before using it in my independent study project, which is about the scenario planning for the future of personal space. I plan to apply biometric system to the architectural and spatial design in my next projects as well (about the space that has memories.)



!!!!Note:
From this study, I found that,generally, biometric is in a subset of the "sensor + pattern recognition". Most of biometrics require using pattern recognition system with the sensor to identify the individual. However, the potential of pattern recognition is not just for the biometrics or the security applications, there are many kinds of products which use this pattern recognition system as well (e.g. robot, performance/sport practice instrument, or game controller.) Personally, I am really interested in using simple pattern recognition with sensor to develop my future projects. Personally, this is a new world for me, and I wish I will be able to understand more about pattern recognition in near future (I wish.)


!!!!! More Resources:

[[http://www.biometrics.dod.mil/bio101/index.aspx | High-level overview of biometric technologies]](by National Defense University, Fort McNair, Washington, DC. )

[[http://www.itl.nist.gov/div893/biometrics/index.html | The Biometrics Resource Center, National Institute of Standards and Technology ]]

[[http://computer.howstuffworks.com/fingerprint-scanner.htm | How fingerprint scanner works (www.howstuffworks.com)]]

[[http://www.barcode.ro| Rosystem ]]

[[http://mathworld.wolfram.com/StandardDeviation.html | Standard Deviation(mathworld) ]]

[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_deviation | Standard Deviation(wikipedia)]]


!!!!! Acknowledgements:
I would like to thank Mr. Jean-Marc Pelletier, IAMAS. for the very helpful information about cv.jit.undergrad, and Tom Igoe for lending me a Siemens ID mouse.