Reports.Tsunameter History

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May 08, 2007, at 01:53 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
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http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/de100.jpg
May 04, 2007, at 04:51 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
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ITP Alumn Toshitaka Amaoka and Oceanographer William O'Halloran were not only the perfect place to start this research but also the most helpful resources:
to:
ITP Alumn and Oceanographer Toshitaka and Engineer William were not only the perfect place to start this research but also the most helpful resources:
May 03, 2007, at 05:22 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 43-44 from:
Oceanographer William O'Halloran was not only the perfect place to start this mission but also the most helpful resource:
to:
ITP Alumn Toshitaka Amaoka and Oceanographer William O'Halloran were not only the perfect place to start this research but also the most helpful resources:
May 03, 2007, at 05:15 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
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And this is the dispersion relation formula that seems to be at the heart of Pierson and Moskowitz experiemnts with accelerometers mounted inside of buoys.
to:
And this is the dispersion relation formula that seems to be at the heart of Pierson and Moskowitz experiments including their calculations made with accelerometers mounted inside of buoys.
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The formula for shallow water situations changes because of the depth smaller than 1/11th of the wavelenght and therefore the tangent of (kd) equals kd.
to:
The formula for shallow water situations changes because of the depth being smaller than 1/11th of the wavelenght and therefore the tangent of (kd) equals kd.
May 03, 2007, at 05:12 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 146-147 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/sin.jpg This formula was necessary to derive these other formulas from: http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/sin2.jpg
And this is the dispersion relation formula:
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/sin.jpg
This formula was necessary to derive these other formulas from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/sin2.jpg
And this is the dispersion relation formula that seems to be at the heart of Pierson and Moskowitz experiemnts with accelerometers mounted inside of buoys.
Added line 151:
The formula reads that the wave frequency in radians per second squared equals gravity multiplied by the wave number multiplied by the tangent of the wave number multiplied by the depth.
Changed lines 153-155 from:
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The formula changes according to the situation as in deep water the depth is always greater than one fourth of the wavelenght. And therefore the tangent of (kd) equals 1.
The formula for shallow water situations changes because of the depth smaller than 1/11th of the wavelenght and therefore the tangent of (kd) equals kd.
May 03, 2007, at 05:03 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 142-145 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/distance.jpg I calculated th distance using this formula, since it was the most accessible to me and i had the data.
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/phasevelocity.jpg Phase velocity, as all other following formulas, are a good example of how the situation is mathematically different if in deep water versus shallow water. In fact, at shore waves, are mostly wind generated and non-dsipersive, while deep water waves take into consideration the dispersion relation. http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/students/waves/waves2.htm
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/sin.jpg
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/sin2.jpg
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/distance.jpg
I calculated th distance using this formula, since it was the most accessible to me and i had the data.
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/phasevelocity.jpg
Phase velocity, as all other following formulas, is a good example of how the situation is mathematically different if in deep water versus shallow water. In fact, at shore waves, are mostly wind generated and non-dsipersive, while deep water waves take into consideration the dispersion relation. http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/students/waves/waves2.htm
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/sin.jpg This formula was necessary to derive these other formulas from: http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/sin2.jpg
And this is the dispersion relation formula:
May 03, 2007, at 05:01 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 142-143 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/distance.jpg
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/phasevelocity.jpg
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/distance.jpg I calculated th distance using this formula, since it was the most accessible to me and i had the data.
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/phasevelocity.jpg Phase velocity, as all other following formulas, are a good example of how the situation is mathematically different if in deep water versus shallow water. In fact, at shore waves, are mostly wind generated and non-dsipersive, while deep water waves take into consideration the dispersion relation. http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/students/waves/waves2.htm
Changed lines 186-188 from:
RUTGERS http://marine.rutgers.edu/cool/
to:
RUTGERS http://marine.rutgers.edu/cool/

CODAR SYSTEM http://www.seasonde.com
/
May 03, 2007, at 04:50 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 138-141 from:
*I made some useless tests.I really wanted to make something useful out of the data coming from the accelerometer so I searched for conversion formulas
with no luck. Then i decided to run a test (probably obvious to most) to see if by controlling the water depth the accelerometer readings would change accordingly.
The answer is no, at least from this specific test. And I am still looking for a formula that can help complete the following math, by giving me some kind of conversion from the voltage value to a unit of measurement that i can actually use and understand.
to:
*I made some useless tests.I really wanted to make something useful out of the data coming from the accelerometer so I searched for conversion formulas with no luck. Then i decided to run a test (probably obvious to most) to see if by controlling the water depth the accelerometer readings would change accordingly. The answer is no, at least from this specific test. And I am still looking for a formula that can help complete the following math, by giving me some kind of conversion from the voltage value to a unit of measurement that i can actually use and understand.
May 03, 2007, at 04:50 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 118-119 from:
I also played with a couple of patches in Max MSP, one that wouls simply vizualize the data coming in from the accelerometer and the parsed GPS data:
to:
I also played with a couple of patches in Max MSP, one that would simply visualize the data coming in from the accelerometer and the parsed GPS data:
Changed lines 128-133 from:
*My computer battery doesn’t last longer than 30 minutes. It was a huge issue when i tested out on the beach.

*One problem was given by the X and Y confusion. I think with a gyro, or ignoring X and Y altogether will fix it!

*The buoy/container won’t be sensing anything smaller than its
diameter.
to:
*My computer battery doesn’t last longer than 30 minutes. It was a huge issue when i tested out on the beach and i wasnt aware of that.

*One problem was given by the X and Y confusion. I think with a gyro, or ignoring X and Y altogether will fix the issue.

*The buoy/container won’t be sensing anything smaller than its
diameter. Basic physics law, but underestimated.
Changed lines 138-140 from:
*Useless Test

I
really wanted to make something useful out of the data coming from the accelerometer so I searched for conversion formulas
to:
*I made some useless tests.I really wanted to make something useful out of the data coming from the accelerometer so I searched for conversion formulas
Changed lines 140-141 from:
The answer is no. at least from this specific test. And I am still looking for a formula that can help complete the following math.
to:
The answer is no, at least from this specific test. And I am still looking for a formula that can help complete the following math, by giving me some kind of conversion from the voltage value to a unit of measurement that i can actually use and understand.
Changed lines 157-160 from:
*Submerge the device to see if this way it ignores small wave generated waves.

*William suggested in his most recent email a very different approach:
to:
*Submerge the device to see if this way it ignores small wind generated waves.

*William suggested in his most recent email a very different approach that i would like to try:
Changed lines 166-170 from:
The most important thing i got out of this research is the amount of resources i have read and compiled that i will be happy to share at some point in the future after i organize them in some sort of way that makes sense.
But for now these are some of the resources that helped me:

'''''
Resources'''''
to:
'''''Some Resources'''''
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RUTGERS http://marine.rutgers.edu/cool/
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More on ACDP http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/technology/tools/acoust_doppler/acoust_doppler.html

More on HYPDROPHONE http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/technology/tools/acoustics/acoustics.html
to:
ACDP http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/technology/tools/acoust_doppler/acoust_doppler.html

HYPDROPHONE http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/technology/tools/acoustics/acoustics.html

RUTGERS http://marine.rutgers.edu/cool/
May 03, 2007, at 04:44 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
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The first tests were focused on making sure that the container was water-tight, especially when in the prototyping phase where i was still using a serial communication and therefore a USB cable.

Also
I played with stabilizing the device in the water, recently i started using marbles and mostly rice to counterbalance the container.
to:
The first tests were focused on making sure that the container was water-tight, especially when in the prototyping phase where i was still using a serial communication and therefore a USB cable. I also played with stabilizing the device in the water, recently i started using marbles and mostly rice to counterbalance the container.
Changed lines 108-109 from:
I had two pieces of code for this project, on that just serially transmitted the GPS string parsed in order to only send the RMC NMEA setting that includes the time, longitude, latitude, speed over ground, course over ground and date and it also serially communicated the unfiltered readings of the accelerometer.
to:
I had two pieces of code for this project. The first that just serially transmitted the GPS string parsed in order to only send the RMC NMEA setting that includes the time, longitude, latitude, speed over ground, course over ground and date and it also serially communicated the unfiltered readings of the accelerometer. I used the regular serail pins for the Bluetooth while i used software serial for the GPS communication.
Changed lines 112-113 from:
The second piece of Arduino code calculated a simple average on 5 samples and a Standard Deviation on 5 samples for each X, Y, Z pin.
to:
The second piece of Arduino code calculated a Simple Average on 5 samples and the Standard Deviation on 5 samples for each X, Y, Z pin.
May 03, 2007, at 04:39 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 94-97 from:
http://www.onsetcomp.com/solutions/products/kits/gkit.php5

The first few test, because of the fact that the device had no wires but was not capable of wireless communication, I used a HOBO Pendant which is a very well packaged and interfaced accelerometer.
to:
The first few tests, because of the fact that the device had no wires, I used a HOBO Pendant G Logger which is a very well packaged and interfaced accelerometer that needs to be retrieved and connected to a computer. http://www.onsetcomp.com/solutions/products/kits/gkit.php5
Changed lines 98-99 from:
It is waterproof and comes with a nice graphic software for both Mac and PC that looks like this:
to:
It is a waterproof package and comes with a nice graphic software for both Mac and PC that looks like this:
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And this is the last I saw of the little toy boat, since it was taken by the undercuccrent and must have logged for about 13 hours and it was programmed to do.
to:
And this is the last time I saw the little toy boat, since it was taken by the undercuccrent and must have logged for about 13 hours as it was programmed to do.
May 03, 2007, at 04:35 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 72-73 from:
*Gyro-Tilt Sensor 65$-100$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=395
*ZigBee Radios and 100$-200$
to:
*Gyro-Tilt Sensor 65$-100$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=395 To stabilize the Z axis against any change of direction of the vessel.
*ZigBee Radios and
100$-200$ To substitute the BlueSmirf.
Changed lines 80-81 from:
for more details on the entire process starting from the first experiments i made with the GPS up until now (almost) check the blog at www.itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/blug
to:
for more details on the entire process starting from the first experiments i made with the GPS up until now (almost) check the blog at http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/blug/archives/sensors/
May 03, 2007, at 04:33 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 80-81 from:
for more details on the entire process starting from the first experiments i made with the GPS up until now (almost) check the blog at www.itp.nyu.edu/bp432/blug
to:
for more details on the entire process starting from the first experiments i made with the GPS up until now (almost) check the blog at www.itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/blug
May 03, 2007, at 04:32 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 67-69 from:
*Hydrophone 40$-250$ http://www.dolphinear.com/
(here needed for purposes other than scientific measurement, for performance) Originally, I wanted to confront the readings from the accelerometer with the readings from the hydrophone. But not only most things that happen in the water happen at non-audible frequencies, but amplifying the signal we also esponentially amplify noise. So although the hydrophone can add a layer of information to the system, it revealed to be fairly problematic. I at first tried with this hydrophone http://cgi.ebay.com/10-Heavy-Duty-Piezo-Stereo-Hydrophone-Contact-Mic_W0QQitemZ330073801758QQihZ014QQcategoryZ15198QQrdZ1QQssPageNameZWD1VQQcmdZViewItem and an amplifier, but then opted for the DolphinEar which i later used in a performace to control video. More details on the purpose of the hydrophone visit http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/acoustics.html
to:
*Hydrophone 40$-250$ http://www.dolphinear.com/ (here needed for purposes other than scientific measurement, for performance) Originally, I wanted to confront the readings from the accelerometer with the readings from the hydrophone. But not only most things that happen in the water happen at non-audible frequencies, but amplifying the signal we also esponentially amplify noise. So although the hydrophone can add a layer of information to the system, it revealed to be fairly problematic. I at first tried with this hydrophone http://cgi.ebay.com/10-Heavy-Duty-Piezo-Stereo-Hydrophone-Contact-Mic_W0QQitemZ330073801758QQihZ014QQcategoryZ15198QQrdZ1QQssPageNameZWD1VQQcmdZViewItem and an amplifier, but then opted for the DolphinEar which i later used in a performace to control video. More details on the purpose of the hydrophone visit http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/acoustics.html
May 03, 2007, at 04:31 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 53-54 from:
I chose the components based on 2 major factors, what William had suggested and also my budget restrictions. I spent a lot of time at the beginning of the project in trying to find a submerible pressure sensor, but whether for the lack of datasheets on ebay or the price ($400 to $20.000) or for the size of this type of equipment (1m ca.) I opted for another network of sensors. ADCPs, which taking advatange of the doppler effect basically "ping" the surface of the water and based on the refraction calculate the current movement, can go up to 30.000$ or more and have issues in clear water because of the fact that the suface might be at times too transparent to reflect and can therefore return useless data. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoustic_Doppler_Current_Profiler
to:
I chose the components based on 2 major factors, what William had suggested and also my budget restrictions. I spent a lot of time at the beginning of the project in trying to find a submersible pressure sensor, but whether for the lack of datasheets on ebay or the price ($400 to $20.000) or for the size of this type of equipment (1m ca.) I had to opt for another network of sensors. Also, ADCPs, which taking advatange of the doppler effect basically "ping" the surface of the water and based on the refraction calculate the current movement, can go up to 30.000$ or more and have issues in clear water because of the fact that the suface might be at times too transparent to reflect and can therefore return useless data. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoustic_Doppler_Current_Profiler
Changed lines 59-60 from:
*GPS module from Sparkfun 50$-60$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=465 To obtain real time readings of UCT time, so that i can calculate the wavelenght and wave interval in time. Plus watch for location, once the device will be anchored somewhere in deep water, and to watch for speed.
to:
*GPS module from Sparkfun 50$-60$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=465 To obtain real time readings of UCT time, so that i can calculate the wavelenght and wave interval in time. Plus watch for location, once the device will be anchored somewhere in deep water, and to watch for speed over ground.
Changed lines 63-66 from:
*Fish finder/Depth sounder 60$-100$ http://www.humminbird.com/products.asp?id=611 There are all kids of depth sounders and fish finders. The best and cheapest manufacturers are definitely Hummingbird and Garmin. I intend to purchase an interfaceable depth sounder that takes NMEA format, so that i can enter that data into my algorythm, but so far i have only used the fish finder from Hummingbird, as part of the prototype. Using SONAR, the fish finder, not only find fish, but also fives me a constant reading of the depth and displays wirelessly the image of the floor bottom.

*Bluetooth wireless module (BlueSmirf) 60$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=582 Used to transfer the data coming from the sensors to my computer using Blootooth pairing.
to:
*Fish finder/Depth sounder 60$-100$ http://www.humminbird.com/products.asp?id=611 There are all kids of depth sounders and fish finders. The best and cheapest manufacturers are Hummingbird and Garmin. I intend to purchase an interfaceable depth sounder that takes NMEA formats, so that i can enter that data into my algorythm, but so far i have only used the fish finder from Hummingbird, as part of the prototype. Using SONAR, the fish finder, not only finds fish, but also gives me a constant reading of the depth and displays wirelessly the image of the floor bottom.

*Bluetooth wireless module (BlueSmirf) 60$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=582 Used to transfer the data coming from the sensors to my computer using BlueRadios Technology.
Changed lines 68-71 from:
(here needed for purposes other than scientific measurement, but for performance) Originally, I wanted to confront the readings from the accelerometer with the readings from the hydrophone. But not only most things that happen in the water happen at non-audible frequencies, but amplifying the signal we only amplify noise. So Although the hydrophone
http://cgi
.ebay.com/10-Heavy-Duty-Piezo-Stereo-Hydrophone-Contact-Mic_W0QQitemZ330073801758QQihZ014QQcategoryZ15198QQrdZ1QQssPageNameZWD1VQQcmdZViewItem
http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/acoustics.html
to:
(here needed for purposes other than scientific measurement, for performance) Originally, I wanted to confront the readings from the accelerometer with the readings from the hydrophone. But not only most things that happen in the water happen at non-audible frequencies, but amplifying the signal we also esponentially amplify noise. So although the hydrophone can add a layer of information to the system, it revealed to be fairly problematic. I at first tried with this hydrophone http://cgi.ebay.com/10-Heavy-Duty-Piezo-Stereo-Hydrophone-Contact-Mic_W0QQitemZ330073801758QQihZ014QQcategoryZ15198QQrdZ1QQssPageNameZWD1VQQcmdZViewItem and an amplifier, but then opted for the DolphinEar which i later used in a performace to control video. More details on the purpose of the hydrophone visit http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/acoustics.html
May 03, 2007, at 04:26 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 40-42 from:
Could I, if not replicate, at least mimik the 250.000$ system with the little knowledge i have on oceanography?
to:
"Could I, if not replicate, at least mimik the 250.000$ system with the little knowledge i have on oceanography?"
Changed lines 53-54 from:
I chose the components based on 2 major factors, what William had suggested and also my budget restrictions. I spent a lot of time at the beginning of the project in trying to find a submerible pressure sensor, but whether for the lack of datasheets on ebay or the price ($400 to $20.000) or for the size of this type of equipment (1m ca.) I opted for another network of sensors. ADCPs, which taking advatange of the doppler effect basically "ping" the surface of the water and based on the refraction calculate the current movement, can go up to 30.000$ or more and have issues in clear water because of the fact that the suface might be at times too transparent to reflect and they return useless data. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoustic_Doppler_Current_Profiler
to:
I chose the components based on 2 major factors, what William had suggested and also my budget restrictions. I spent a lot of time at the beginning of the project in trying to find a submerible pressure sensor, but whether for the lack of datasheets on ebay or the price ($400 to $20.000) or for the size of this type of equipment (1m ca.) I opted for another network of sensors. ADCPs, which taking advatange of the doppler effect basically "ping" the surface of the water and based on the refraction calculate the current movement, can go up to 30.000$ or more and have issues in clear water because of the fact that the suface might be at times too transparent to reflect and can therefore return useless data. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoustic_Doppler_Current_Profiler
May 03, 2007, at 04:23 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 29-30:
lambda is the wavelenght (in relation to the depth) and it equals the Period of the wave multiplied by the squaqre root of gravitiational acceleration multiplied by the depth.
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The original question i faced while reading and researching extensively on the Tsunami analysis and esoteric attempts to detect it when still in deep ocean, was:
Could I, if not replicate, at least mimik the 250.000$ system with the little knowledge i have on oceanography? I would like to think that, although i am still not an expert, i have gained a great deal of knowledge on the subject now and definitely a good understanding of the device.
to:
The original question i faced while reading and researching extensively on the Tsunami analysis and esoteric attempts to detect it when still in deep ocean, was:

Could
I, if not replicate, at least mimik the 250.000$ system with the little knowledge i have on oceanography?

I would like to think that, although i am still not an expert, i have gained a great deal of knowledge on the subject now and definitely a good understanding of the device itself.
May 03, 2007, at 04:19 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 25-26 from:
The tsunami detection algorithm in the software works first by estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value. This algorythm is at the heart of the submersible system and basically alarms the buoy any time the threshold is being breeched. The formula shown is only part of the algorythm which we will look at later. Basically the rule of thumb i based my mathematical study on is that the wavelenght of a tsunami in deep ocean is also greater that its depth, while the height of tsunami waves when still at the origin can be even in the range of only a couple of cms and also hard to understand since highly manipulated by the structure of the sea floor.
to:
The tsunami detection algorithm in the software works first by estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value. This algorythm is at the heart of the submersible system and basically alarms the buoy any time the threshold is being breeched. The formula shown is only part of the algorythm which we will look at later. Basically the rule of thumb i based my mathematical study on is that the wavelenght of a tsunami in deep ocean is also greater that its depth, while the height of tsunami waves when still at the origin can even be in the range of only a couple of cms.
May 03, 2007, at 04:18 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 19-20 from:
*Optional ADCP or CTD (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler or Conductivity, Temperature and Density Sensor). They can help give a better subsea picture of the current flow and the general state of the water, and this data can possibly help prevent false alarms which are a very important issue when it comes down to predicting tsunamis. Lots of locations are very shy not only to the technology, but aso to letting out Tsunami warnings and alarms for fear of economical loss of tourism and business.) http://www.rdinstruments.com/
to:
*Optional ADCP or CTD (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler or Conductivity, Temperature and Density Sensor). They can help give a better subsea picture of the current flow and the general state of the water, and this data can help in trying to detect the tsunami when still in deep ocean. And possibly help prevent false alarms which are a very recurrent issue ; many locations at risk of tsunamis were, at least in the past, very shy not only to the technology, but aso to letting out Tsunami warnings and alarms for fear of economical loss of tourism and business. http://www.whoi.edu/instruments/viewInstrument.do?id=819
Changed lines 193-194 from:
ACDP http://www.whoi.edu/instruments/viewInstrument.do?id=819
to:
RD INSTRUMENTS http://www.rdinstruments.com/
May 03, 2007, at 04:14 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 19-20 from:
*Optional ADCP or CTD (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler or Conductivity, Temperature and Density Sensor. They can help give a better subsea picture of the current flow and the general state of the water, and this data can possibly help prevent false alarms which are a very important issue when it comes down to predicting tsunamis. Lots of locations are very shy not only to the technology, but aso to letting out Tsunami warnings and alarms for fear of economical loss of tourism and business.) http://www.rdinstruments.com/
to:
*Optional ADCP or CTD (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler or Conductivity, Temperature and Density Sensor). They can help give a better subsea picture of the current flow and the general state of the water, and this data can possibly help prevent false alarms which are a very important issue when it comes down to predicting tsunamis. Lots of locations are very shy not only to the technology, but aso to letting out Tsunami warnings and alarms for fear of economical loss of tourism and business.) http://www.rdinstruments.com/
May 03, 2007, at 04:14 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 13-14 from:
*Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) including Digiquartz Broadband Depth Sensor, a computer, a data logger. This very well calibrated device records the pressure in deep water using Paroscientific's Digiquartz technology that revolves around crystal quartz resonators, http://www.quartzdyne.com/technology/quartz.htm , a type of material that apparently very well responds to the changes in pressure at depths such between 1000 and 8000 meters.
to:
*Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) including Digiquartz Broadband Depth Sensor, a computer, a data logger. This very well calibrated device records the pressure in deep water using Paroscientific's Digiquartz technology that revolves around crystal quartz resonators, http://www.quartzdyne.com/technology/quartz.htm , a type of material that apparently very well responds to the changes in pressure at depths between 1000 and 8000 meters.
May 03, 2007, at 04:13 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 13-14 from:
*Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) including Digiquartz Broadband Depth Sensor, a computer, a data logger. This very well calibrated device records the pressure in deep water using Paroscientific's Digiquartz technology http://www.quartzdyne.com/technology/quartz.htm that revolves around crystal quartz resonators, a type of material that apparently very well responds to the changes in pressure at depth such as 1000 to 8000 meters. http://www.paroscientific.com/
to:
*Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) including Digiquartz Broadband Depth Sensor, a computer, a data logger. This very well calibrated device records the pressure in deep water using Paroscientific's Digiquartz technology that revolves around crystal quartz resonators, http://www.quartzdyne.com/technology/quartz.htm , a type of material that apparently very well responds to the changes in pressure at depths such between 1000 and 8000 meters.
Added lines 191-192:
PAROSCIENTIFIC http://www.paroscientific.com/
May 03, 2007, at 04:07 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 189-195:
RUTGERS http://marine.rutgers.edu/cool/

ACDP http://www.whoi.edu/instruments/viewInstrument.do?id=819

More on ACDP http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/technology/tools/acoust_doppler/acoust_doppler.html

More on HYPDROPHONE http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/technology/tools/acoustics/acoustics.html
May 03, 2007, at 03:56 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added line 66:
http://cgi.ebay.com/10-Heavy-Duty-Piezo-Stereo-Hydrophone-Contact-Mic_W0QQitemZ330073801758QQihZ014QQcategoryZ15198QQrdZ1QQssPageNameZWD1VQQcmdZViewItem
May 03, 2007, at 03:42 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 13-14 from:
*Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) including Digiquartz Broadband Depth Sensor, a computer, a data logger. This very well calibrated device records the pressure in deep water using Paroscientific's Digiquartz technology that revolves around crystal quartz resonators, a type of material that apparently very well responds to the changes in pressure at depth such as 1000 to 8000 meters. http://www.paroscientific.com/
to:
*Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) including Digiquartz Broadband Depth Sensor, a computer, a data logger. This very well calibrated device records the pressure in deep water using Paroscientific's Digiquartz technology http://www.quartzdyne.com/technology/quartz.htm that revolves around crystal quartz resonators, a type of material that apparently very well responds to the changes in pressure at depth such as 1000 to 8000 meters. http://www.paroscientific.com/
May 03, 2007, at 03:51 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 50-51 from:
I chose the components based on 2 major factors, what William had suggested and also my budget restrictions. I spent a lot of time at the beginning of the project in trying to find a submerible pressure sensor, but whether for the lack of datasheets on ebay or the price ($400 to $20.000) or for the size of this type of equipment (1m ca.) I opted for another network of sensors. ADCPs, which taking advatange of the doppler effect basically "ping" the surface of the water and based on the refraction calculate the current movement, can go up to 30.000$ or more and have issues in clear water because of the fact that the suface might be at times too transparent to reflect and they return useless data.
to:
I chose the components based on 2 major factors, what William had suggested and also my budget restrictions. I spent a lot of time at the beginning of the project in trying to find a submerible pressure sensor, but whether for the lack of datasheets on ebay or the price ($400 to $20.000) or for the size of this type of equipment (1m ca.) I opted for another network of sensors. ADCPs, which taking advatange of the doppler effect basically "ping" the surface of the water and based on the refraction calculate the current movement, can go up to 30.000$ or more and have issues in clear water because of the fact that the suface might be at times too transparent to reflect and they return useless data. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoustic_Doppler_Current_Profiler
Changed lines 66-67 from:
to:
http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/acoustics.html
May 03, 2007, at 03:25 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
May 03, 2007, at 02:59 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 54-67 from:
*ADXL330 accelerometer 25$-35$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=692 ->To calculate the X,Y,Z movement and especially to watch for the Z axis and identify wave crests.

*GPS module from Sparkfun 50$-60$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=465
To obtain real time readings of UCT time, so that i can calculate the wavelenght and wave interval in time. Plus watch for location, once the device will be anchored somewhere in deep water, and to watch for speed.

*Microcontroller 4$-40$
I am using an Arduino, but possibly an ATMEL chip with AD converters might do the same job.

*Fish finder/Depth sounder 60$-100$ http://www.humminbird.com/products.asp?id=611
There are all kids of depth sounders and fish finders. The best and cheapest manufacturers are definitely Hummingbird and Garmin. I intend to purchase an interfaceable depth sounder that takes NMEA format, so that i can enter that data into my algorythm, but so far i have only used the fish finder from Hummingbird, as part of the prototype. Using SONAR, the fish finder, not only find fish, but also fives me a constant reading of the depth and displays wirelessly the image of the floor bottom.

*Bluetooth wireless module (BlueSmirf) 60$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=582
Used to transfer the data coming from the sensors to my computer using Blootooth pairing.
to:
*ADXL330 accelerometer 25$-35$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=692 To calculate the X,Y,Z movement and especially to watch for the Z axis and identify wave crests.

*GPS module from Sparkfun 50$-60$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=465 To obtain real time readings of UCT time, so that i can calculate the wavelenght and wave interval in time. Plus watch for location, once the device will be anchored somewhere in deep water, and to watch for speed.

*Microcontroller 4$-40$ I am using an Arduino, but possibly an ATMEL chip with AD converters might do the same job.

*Fish finder/Depth sounder 60$-100$ http://www.humminbird.com/products.asp?id=611 There are all kids of depth sounders and fish finders. The best and cheapest manufacturers are definitely Hummingbird and Garmin. I intend to purchase an interfaceable depth sounder that takes NMEA format, so that i can enter that data into my algorythm, but so far i have only used the fish finder from Hummingbird, as part of the prototype. Using SONAR, the fish finder, not only find fish, but also fives me a constant reading of the depth and displays wirelessly the image of the floor bottom.

*Bluetooth wireless module (BlueSmirf) 60$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=582 Used to transfer the data coming from the sensors to my computer using Blootooth pairing.
May 03, 2007, at 02:58 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 54-56 from:
*ADXL330 accelerometer 25$-35$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=692
To calculate the X,Y,Z movement and especially to watch for the Z axis and identify wave crests.
to:
*ADXL330 accelerometer 25$-35$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=692 ->To calculate the X,Y,Z movement and especially to watch for the Z axis and identify wave crests.
May 03, 2007, at 02:48 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 25-26 from:
The tsunami detection algorithm in the cages software works first by estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value. This algorythm is at the heart of the submersible system and basically alarms the buoy any time the threshold is being breeched. The formula shown is only part of the algorythm which we will look at later. Basically the rule of thumb i based my mathematical study on is that the wavelenght of a tsunami in deep ocean is also greater that its depth, while the height of tsunami waves when still at the origin can be even in the range of only a couple of cms and also hard to understand since highly manipulated by the structure of the sea floor.
to:
The tsunami detection algorithm in the software works first by estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value. This algorythm is at the heart of the submersible system and basically alarms the buoy any time the threshold is being breeched. The formula shown is only part of the algorythm which we will look at later. Basically the rule of thumb i based my mathematical study on is that the wavelenght of a tsunami in deep ocean is also greater that its depth, while the height of tsunami waves when still at the origin can be even in the range of only a couple of cms and also hard to understand since highly manipulated by the structure of the sea floor.
Changed lines 31-32 from:
The engineer's design goal before 2004 included an expense goal of under 250.000$. Therefore i wanted to see how far i could go with only a 250$ budget and until when i was able to retrieve scientifically valuable information from what i had compiled.
to:
The engineer's design goal before 2004 included an expense goal of under 250.000$. Therefore i wanted to see how far i could go with only a 250$ budget and see until when i was able to retrieve scientifically valuable information from what i had compiled.
Changed lines 37-41 from:
The original question i faced while reading and researching extensively on the Tsunami analysis and esotheric attempts to detect it when still in deep ocean, was:
Could I, if not replicate, at least mimik the 250.000$ system with the little knowledge i had on coeanography at the beginning? I would like to think that, although i am still not an expert, i have gained a great deal of knowledge on the subject now and definitely a good understanding of the device.

And Oceanographer William O'Halloran was not only the perfect place to start but also the most helpful resource:
to:
The original question i faced while reading and researching extensively on the Tsunami analysis and esoteric attempts to detect it when still in deep ocean, was:
Could I, if not replicate, at least mimik the 250.000$ system with the little knowledge i have on oceanography? I would like to think that, although i am still not an expert, i have gained a great deal of knowledge on the subject now and definitely a good understanding of the device.

Oceanographer William O'Halloran was not only the perfect place to start this mission but also the most helpful resource:
Changed lines 50-51 from:
I chose the components based on 2 major factors, what William had suggested and also my budget restrictions. I spent a lot of time at the beginning of the project in trying to find a submerible pressure sensor, but whether for the lack of datasheets on ebay or the price ($400 to $20.000) or for the size of this type of equipment (1m ca.) I opted for another network of sensors. ADCPs, which taking advatange of the doppler effect basically "ping" the surface of the water and based on the refraction calculate the current movement, can go up to 30.000$ or more and have issues in clear water because of the fact that the suface might be too clear to reflect and therefore return useless data at times.
to:
I chose the components based on 2 major factors, what William had suggested and also my budget restrictions. I spent a lot of time at the beginning of the project in trying to find a submerible pressure sensor, but whether for the lack of datasheets on ebay or the price ($400 to $20.000) or for the size of this type of equipment (1m ca.) I opted for another network of sensors. ADCPs, which taking advatange of the doppler effect basically "ping" the surface of the water and based on the refraction calculate the current movement, can go up to 30.000$ or more and have issues in clear water because of the fact that the suface might be at times too transparent to reflect and they return useless data.
Changed lines 58-59 from:
To obtain real time, so that i can calculate the wavelenght and wave interval in time. Plus watch for location, once the device will be anchored somewhere in deep water, and to watch for speed.
to:
To obtain real time readings of UCT time, so that i can calculate the wavelenght and wave interval in time. Plus watch for location, once the device will be anchored somewhere in deep water, and to watch for speed.
May 03, 2007, at 02:12 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 13-16 from:
*Bottom Pressure Recorder
(BPR) including Digiquartz Broadband Depth Sensor, a computer, a data logger. This very well calibrated device records the pressure in deep water using Paroscientific's Digiquartz technology that revolves around crystal quartz resonators, a type of material that apparently very well responds to the changes in pressure at depth such as 1000 to 8000 meters.
http://www.paroscientific.com/
to:
*Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) including Digiquartz Broadband Depth Sensor, a computer, a data logger. This very well calibrated device records the pressure in deep water using Paroscientific's Digiquartz technology that revolves around crystal quartz resonators, a type of material that apparently very well responds to the changes in pressure at depth such as 1000 to 8000 meters. http://www.paroscientific.com/
Changed lines 19-20 from:
*Optional ADCP or CTD (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler or Conductivity, Temperature and Density Sensor. They can help give a better subsea picture of the current flow and the general state of the water, and this data can possibly help prevent false alarms which are a very important issue when it comes down to predicting tsunamis. Lots of locations are very shy not only to the technology, but aso to letting out Tsunami warnings and alarms for fear of economical loss of tourism and business.)
to:
*Optional ADCP or CTD (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler or Conductivity, Temperature and Density Sensor. They can help give a better subsea picture of the current flow and the general state of the water, and this data can possibly help prevent false alarms which are a very important issue when it comes down to predicting tsunamis. Lots of locations are very shy not only to the technology, but aso to letting out Tsunami warnings and alarms for fear of economical loss of tourism and business.) http://www.rdinstruments.com/

For a similar system here is a detailed website from an Italian manufacturer, Envirtech http://www.envirtech.org/seafloor_observatory.htm
May 03, 2007, at 01:58 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 21-22 from:
*Optional ADCP or CTD (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler or Conductivity, Temperature and Density Sensor, which can help in giving a better subsea picture of the current flow and the general state of the water, and this data can help possibly in detecting false alarms which are a very important issue when it comes down to predicting tsunamis, since lots of locations are very shy to letting out Tsunami warnings and alarms for fear of economical loss of tourism and business.)
to:
*Optional ADCP or CTD (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler or Conductivity, Temperature and Density Sensor. They can help give a better subsea picture of the current flow and the general state of the water, and this data can possibly help prevent false alarms which are a very important issue when it comes down to predicting tsunamis. Lots of locations are very shy not only to the technology, but aso to letting out Tsunami warnings and alarms for fear of economical loss of tourism and business.)
Changed lines 25-26 from:
The tsunami detection algorithm in the cages software works first by estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value. This algorythm is at the heart of this system and basically alarms the buoy any time the threshold is being breeched. This formula is only part of the algorythm which wll look at later. Basically the rule of thumb i based my mathematical study on is that the wavelenght of a tsunami in deep ocean is also greater that its depth, while the height of tsunami waves when still at the origin can be even in the range of only a couple of cms and also hard to understand since highly manipulated by the structure of the sea floor.
to:
The tsunami detection algorithm in the cages software works first by estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value. This algorythm is at the heart of the submersible system and basically alarms the buoy any time the threshold is being breeched. The formula shown is only part of the algorythm which we will look at later. Basically the rule of thumb i based my mathematical study on is that the wavelenght of a tsunami in deep ocean is also greater that its depth, while the height of tsunami waves when still at the origin can be even in the range of only a couple of cms and also hard to understand since highly manipulated by the structure of the sea floor.
Changed lines 31-32 from:
The engeneer's design goal before 2004 included an expense goal of under 250.000$. Therefore i wanted to see how far i could go with only a 250$ budget and until when i was able to retrieve scientifically valuable information from what i had compiled.
to:
The engineer's design goal before 2004 included an expense goal of under 250.000$. Therefore i wanted to see how far i could go with only a 250$ budget and until when i was able to retrieve scientifically valuable information from what i had compiled.
Added lines 143-144:
*I also discovered that there isn't a direct relationship between the magnitude of the earthquake and the tsunami being generated and therefore false alarms can happen when a high magnitude earthquake is detected.
May 02, 2007, at 03:06 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 55-56 from:
-> To calculate the X,Y,Z movement and especially to watch for the Z axis and identify wave crests.
to:
To calculate the X,Y,Z movement and especially to watch for the Z axis and identify wave crests.
Added lines 58-59:
To obtain real time, so that i can calculate the wavelenght and wave interval in time. Plus watch for location, once the device will be anchored somewhere in deep water, and to watch for speed.
Added lines 61-62:
I am using an Arduino, but possibly an ATMEL chip with AD converters might do the same job.
Added lines 64-65:
There are all kids of depth sounders and fish finders. The best and cheapest manufacturers are definitely Hummingbird and Garmin. I intend to purchase an interfaceable depth sounder that takes NMEA format, so that i can enter that data into my algorythm, but so far i have only used the fish finder from Hummingbird, as part of the prototype. Using SONAR, the fish finder, not only find fish, but also fives me a constant reading of the depth and displays wirelessly the image of the floor bottom.
Added lines 67-68:
Used to transfer the data coming from the sensors to my computer using Blootooth pairing.
Changed lines 70-71 from:
(here needed for purposes other than scientific measurement, but for performance)
to:
(here needed for purposes other than scientific measurement, but for performance) Originally, I wanted to confront the readings from the accelerometer with the readings from the hydrophone. But not only most things that happen in the water happen at non-audible frequencies, but amplifying the signal we only amplify noise. So Although the hydrophone
May 02, 2007, at 02:55 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 55-56 from:
-<To calculate the X,Y,Z movement and especially to watch for the Z axis and identify wave crests.
to:
-> To calculate the X,Y,Z movement and especially to watch for the Z axis and identify wave crests.
May 02, 2007, at 02:55 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 55-56 from:
->To calculate the X,Y,Z movement and especially to watch for the Z axis and identify wave crests.
to:
-<To calculate the X,Y,Z movement and especially to watch for the Z axis and identify wave crests.
May 02, 2007, at 02:54 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 50-51 from:
I chose the components based on 2 major factors, what William had suggested and also my budget restrictions. I spent a lot of time at the beginning of the project in trying to find a submerible pressure sensor, but whether for the lack of datasheets on ebay or the price ($400 to $20.000) or for the size of this type of equipment (1m ca.) I opted for another network of sensors:
to:
I chose the components based on 2 major factors, what William had suggested and also my budget restrictions. I spent a lot of time at the beginning of the project in trying to find a submerible pressure sensor, but whether for the lack of datasheets on ebay or the price ($400 to $20.000) or for the size of this type of equipment (1m ca.) I opted for another network of sensors. ADCPs, which taking advatange of the doppler effect basically "ping" the surface of the water and based on the refraction calculate the current movement, can go up to 30.000$ or more and have issues in clear water because of the fact that the suface might be too clear to reflect and therefore return useless data at times.

So this is is what i used and what i plan to use in the future
:
Added lines 55-56:
->To calculate the X,Y,Z movement and especially to watch for the Z axis and identify wave crests.
May 02, 2007, at 02:37 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 21-22 from:
*Optional ADCP or CTD Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler or Conductivity, Temperature and Density Sensor.
to:
*Optional ADCP or CTD (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler or Conductivity, Temperature and Density Sensor, which can help in giving a better subsea picture of the current flow and the general state of the water, and this data can help possibly in detecting false alarms which are a very important issue when it comes down to predicting tsunamis, since lots of locations are very shy to letting out Tsunami warnings and alarms for fear of economical loss of tourism and business.)
Changed lines 25-26 from:
The tsunami detection algorithm in the cages software works first by estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value.
to:
The tsunami detection algorithm in the cages software works first by estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value. This algorythm is at the heart of this system and basically alarms the buoy any time the threshold is being breeched. This formula is only part of the algorythm which wll look at later. Basically the rule of thumb i based my mathematical study on is that the wavelenght of a tsunami in deep ocean is also greater that its depth, while the height of tsunami waves when still at the origin can be even in the range of only a couple of cms and also hard to understand since highly manipulated by the structure of the sea floor.
Changed lines 31-32 from:
The engeneer's design goal and expense goal of under 250.000$.
to:
The engeneer's design goal before 2004 included an expense goal of under 250.000$. Therefore i wanted to see how far i could go with only a 250$ budget and until when i was able to retrieve scientifically valuable information from what i had compiled.
Added line 34:
Changed lines 38-41 from:
Could I if not replicate, at least mimik the 250.000$ system with a 250$ budget?

And Oceanographer William Halloran was
the perfect place to start:
to:
Could I, if not replicate, at least mimik the 250.000$ system with the little knowledge i had on coeanography at the beginning? I would like to think that, although i am still not an expert, i have gained a great deal of knowledge on the subject now and definitely a good understanding of the device.

And Oceanographer William O'Halloran was not only the perfect place to
start but also the most helpful resource:
May 02, 2007, at 02:02 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 5-6 from:
Tsunami waves are most often caused by seismic disturbances in the ocean, which abruptly push huge volumes of water out from the fault's center. Underwater landslides and even meteor impacts can set off tsunamis as well.
to:
Tsunami waves are most often caused by seismic disturbances in the ocean, which abruptly push huge volumes of water out from the fault's center. Underwater landslides and even meteor impacts can set off tsunamis as well. Vulcano eruptions, if in a coastal location, can also contribute to the generation of tsunami waves.
May 01, 2007, at 03:46 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added line 166:
Added line 168:
Added line 170:
Added line 172:
Added line 174:
May 01, 2007, at 03:42 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 160-171:
The most important thing i got out of this research is the amount of resources i have read and compiled that i will be happy to share at some point in the future after i organize them in some sort of way that makes sense.
But for now these are some of the resources that helped me:

'''''Resources'''''

NOAA http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/Mov/DART_04.swf
OceanWorld http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/ocng_textbook/chapter16/chapter16_01.htm
AMNH http://sciencebulletins.amnh.org/earth/
WHOI http://www.whoi.edu/sbl/liteSite.do?litesiteid=8832&articleId=13147
NASA http://sealevel.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/jason-1.html
MBARI http://www.mbari.org
May 01, 2007, at 03:22 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 21-22 from:
*Optional ADCP or CTD
to:
*Optional ADCP or CTD Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler or Conductivity, Temperature and Density Sensor.
Changed lines 158-159 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/buoys.jpg http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/boats.jpg
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/buoys1.jpg http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/boats1.jpg
May 01, 2007, at 03:17 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 157-159:
*Possible New Encasings:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/buoys.jpg http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/boats.jpg
May 01, 2007, at 03:09 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 155-161 from:
@@Accelerometers are mems devices, and as such are capable of sensing very very fine movements, like sound waves in water.

You
can immerse the accels in a substance like baby oil, or ISOPAR (very toxic), and immerse them in water.  You will need lead, b/c the oils are lighter than water.

Then experiment with what freqs the accels are keyed up to; they will have a sweet spot.  Your data will not look great b/c the ADXL does quite a bit of filtering, BUT, you may be able to squeeze some meaningful wave pressure and velocity info.  Especially if you have more than one in the water, and know which way they are pointing.  If you have that, you can do a waveform modeling on the cheap.  Might not be all that useful, but then might.@@
to:
@@Accelerometers are mems devices, and as such are capable of sensing very very fine movements, like sound waves in water. You can immerse the accels in a substance like baby oil, or ISOPAR (very toxic), and immerse them in water.  You will need lead, b/c the oils are lighter than water. Then experiment with what freqs the accels are keyed up to; they will have a sweet spot.  Your data will not look great b/c the ADXL does quite a bit of filtering, BUT, you may be able to squeeze some meaningful wave pressure and velocity info.  Especially if you have more than one in the water, and know which way they are pointing.  If you have that, you can do a waveform modeling on the cheap.  Might not be all that useful, but then might.@@
May 01, 2007, at 03:08 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added line 155:
May 01, 2007, at 03:07 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 155-156 from:
@@“Accelerometers are mems devices, and as such are capable of sensing very very fine movements, like sound waves in water.
to:
@@Accelerometers are mems devices, and as such are capable of sensing very very fine movements, like sound waves in water.
Changed lines 159-160 from:
Then experiment with what freqs the accels are keyed up to; they will have a sweet spot.  Your data will not look great b/c the ADXL does quite a bit of filtering, BUT, you may be able to squeeze some meaningful wave pressure and velocity info.  Especially if you have more than one in the water, and know which way they are pointing.  If you have that, you can do a waveform modeling on the cheap.  Might not be all that useful, but then might.@@
to:
Then experiment with what freqs the accels are keyed up to; they will have a sweet spot.  Your data will not look great b/c the ADXL does quite a bit of filtering, BUT, you may be able to squeeze some meaningful wave pressure and velocity info.  Especially if you have more than one in the water, and know which way they are pointing.  If you have that, you can do a waveform modeling on the cheap.  Might not be all that useful, but then might.@@
May 01, 2007, at 03:06 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 155-157 from:
@@
“Accelerometers are mems devices, and as such are capable of sensing very very fine movements, like sound waves in water.
to:
@@“Accelerometers are mems devices, and as such are capable of sensing very very fine movements, like sound waves in water.
May 01, 2007, at 03:05 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 144-161:

'''''Next Steps'''''

*Construct a structure similar to the DART system with a buoy or using multiple floating buoys.

*Remote control boat to drive further at coast and drive itself back.

*Submerge the device to see if this way it ignores small wave generated waves.

*William suggested in his most recent email a very different approach:

@@
“Accelerometers are mems devices, and as such are capable of sensing very very fine movements, like sound waves in water.

You can immerse the accels in a substance like baby oil, or ISOPAR (very toxic), and immerse them in water.  You will need lead, b/c the oils are lighter than water.

Then experiment with what freqs the accels are keyed up to; they will have a sweet spot.  Your data will not look great b/c the ADXL does quite a bit of filtering, BUT, you may be able to squeeze some meaningful wave pressure and velocity info.  Especially if you have more than one in the water, and know which way they are pointing.  If you have that, you can do a waveform modeling on the cheap.  Might not be all that useful, but then might.”@@
May 01, 2007, at 02:53 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 140-143 from:
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/sin.jpg
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/sin2.jpg
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/w2.jpg
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/w2deepwater.jpg
May 01, 2007, at 02:47 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 139-140 from:
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/phasevelocity.jpg
May 01, 2007, at 02:37 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 136-139 from:
to:
*Math

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/distance.jpg
May 01, 2007, at 02:20 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 130-131 from:
'''Useless Test'''
to:
*Useless Test
Changed lines 134-135 from:
to:
The answer is no. at least from this specific test. And I am still looking for a formula that can help complete the following math.
May 01, 2007, at 02:12 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 132-134 from:
to:
I really wanted to make something useful out of the data coming from the accelerometer so I searched for conversion formulas
with no luck. Then i decided to run a test (probably obvious to most) to see if by controlling the water depth the accelerometer readings would change accordingly.
May 01, 2007, at 02:06 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 130-132 from:
to:
'''Useless Test'''
May 01, 2007, at 02:01 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 120-121 from:
'''''Problems, Challenges and Discoveries'''''
to:
'''''Problems, Challenges and Discoveries'''''
May 01, 2007, at 02:00 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 19-22 from:
*Satellite telecommunication
(GPS Iridium)
http://www.iridium.com/corp/iri_corp-understand.asp
to:
*Satellite telecommunication (GPS Iridium) http://www.iridium.com/corp/iri_corp-understand.asp
Changed lines 122-127 from:
*My computer battery doesn’t last longer than
30 minutes. It was a huge issue when i tested out on the beach.

*One problem was given by the X and Y confusion. I think with a gyro, or ignoring
x and y altogether will fix it.
to:
*My computer battery doesn’t last longer than 30 minutes. It was a huge issue when i tested out on the beach.

*One problem was given by the X and Y confusion. I think with a gyro, or ignoring X and Y altogether will fix it!
May 01, 2007, at 01:55 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 122-136:
'''''Problems, Challenges and Discoveries'''''

*My computer battery doesn’t last longer than
30 minutes. It was a huge issue when i tested out on the beach.

*One problem was given by the X and Y confusion. I think with a gyro, or ignoring
x and y altogether will fix it.

*The buoy/container won’t be sensing anything smaller than its diameter.

*The wavelength of a tsunami wave is always greater than the water depth.


May 01, 2007, at 01:51 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 120-121 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/patch_gl.jpg http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/gl_wave.jpg
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/patch_gl1.jpg http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/gl_wave1.jpg
May 01, 2007, at 01:46 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 111-121:

CODES IN MAX-MSP:

I also played with a couple of patches in Max MSP, one that wouls simply vizualize the data coming in from the accelerometer and the parsed GPS data:

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/GPSmax.png

The other Max patch used a OpenGL object to map out X, Y, and Z and showed the movement of the wave:

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/patch_gl.jpg http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/gl_wave.jpg
May 01, 2007, at 01:07 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 108-110 from:
to:
The second piece of Arduino code calculated a simple average on 5 samples and a Standard Deviation on 5 samples for each X, Y, Z pin.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/savgSD2.png
May 01, 2007, at 01:01 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 104-106 from:
I had two pieces of code for this project, on that just serially transmitted the GPS string parsed in order to only send the RMC NMEA setting that includes the time, longitude, latitude, speed over ground, course over ground and
to:
I had two pieces of code for this project, on that just serially transmitted the GPS string parsed in order to only send the RMC NMEA setting that includes the time, longitude, latitude, speed over ground, course over ground and date and it also serially communicated the unfiltered readings of the accelerometer.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/fnumbSD.png
May 01, 2007, at 12:27 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 104-106 from:
I had two pieces of code for this project, on that just serially transmitted the GPS string parsed in order to only send the RMC NMEA setting that includes
to:
I had two pieces of code for this project, on that just serially transmitted the GPS string parsed in order to only send the RMC NMEA setting that includes the time, longitude, latitude, speed over ground, course over ground and
April 30, 2007, at 11:26 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 102-106 from:
to:
CODES IN ARDUINO:

I had two pieces of code for this project, on that just serially transmitted the GPS string parsed in order to only send the RMC NMEA setting that includes
April 30, 2007, at 11:21 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 86-87:
http://www.onsetcomp.com/solutions/products/kits/gkit.php5
Changed lines 92-93 from:
It is waterproof and comes with a nice graphic software for both Mac and PC that looks like this:
to:
It is waterproof and comes with a nice graphic software for both Mac and PC that looks like this:
April 30, 2007, at 11:18 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 98-100 from:
to:
'''Tsunameter tests'''
April 30, 2007, at 11:17 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 93-98:

And this is the last I saw of the little toy boat, since it was taken by the undercuccrent and must have logged for about 13 hours and it was programmed to do.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/byeboat.jpg
April 30, 2007, at 11:14 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 84-92 from:
to:
'''HOBO Pendant G Logger'''

The first few test, because of the fact that the device had no wires but was not capable of wireless communication, I used a HOBO Pendant which is a very well packaged and interfaced accelerometer.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/open.jpg http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/closing.jpg http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/closed.jpg

It is waterproof and comes with a nice graphic software for both Mac and PC that looks like this:

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/datahobo.png
April 30, 2007, at 10:50 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 74-75 from:
'''''First tests'''''
to:
'''''Preliminary tests'''''
Changed lines 82-83 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/
to:
'''''Test in Greenport, Long Island'''''
April 30, 2007, at 10:43 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 74-75 from:
''''First tests'''''
to:
'''''First tests'''''
April 30, 2007, at 10:43 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 49-50 from:
'"My components of choice:'"
to:
'''''My components of choice:'''''
Changed lines 74-75 from:
'"First tests"'
to:
''''First tests'''''
April 30, 2007, at 10:40 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 80-81 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/containers.jpg http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/test_sink.jpg
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/containers.jpg http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/test_sink.jpg http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/last_test.jpg
Deleted lines 83-84:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/
April 30, 2007, at 10:36 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 80-83 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/containers.jpg

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/test_sink.jpg
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/containers.jpg http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/test_sink.jpg
April 30, 2007, at 10:35 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 71-87:

for more details on the entire process starting from the first experiments i made with the GPS up until now (almost) check the blog at www.itp.nyu.edu/bp432/blug

'"First tests"'

The first tests were focused on making sure that the container was water-tight, especially when in the prototyping phase where i was still using a serial communication and therefore a USB cable.

Also I played with stabilizing the device in the water, recently i started using marbles and mostly rice to counterbalance the container.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/containers.jpg

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/test_sink.jpg

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/
April 30, 2007, at 10:26 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 67-70:

Final Device:

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/tsunameter_blue.jpg
April 30, 2007, at 10:22 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 53-61 from:
*ADXL330 accelerometer 25$-35$
*GPS module from Sparkfun 50$-60$
*Microcontroller 4$-40$
*Fish finder
/Depth sounder 60$-100$
*Bluetooth wireless module (BlueSmirf) 60$
*Hydrophone 40$-250$

(here needed for purposes other than scientific
measurement)
to:
*ADXL330 accelerometer 25$-35$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=692
*GPS
module from Sparkfun 50$-60$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=465
*Microcontroller 4
$-40$
*Fish finder/Depth sounder 60$-100$ http://www.humminbird.com/products.asp?id=611
*Bluetooth wireless module (BlueSmirf) 60$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=582
*Hydrophone 40$-250$ http://www.dolphinear.com/
(here needed for purposes other than scientific
measurement, but for performance)
Changed line 64 from:
*Gyro-Tilt Sensor 65$-100$
to:
*Gyro-Tilt Sensor 65$-100$ http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=395
April 30, 2007, at 10:20 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 48-67:

'"My components of choice:'"

I chose the components based on 2 major factors, what William had suggested and also my budget restrictions. I spent a lot of time at the beginning of the project in trying to find a submerible pressure sensor, but whether for the lack of datasheets on ebay or the price ($400 to $20.000) or for the size of this type of equipment (1m ca.) I opted for another network of sensors:

*ADXL330 accelerometer 25$-35$
*GPS module from Sparkfun 50$-60$
*Microcontroller 4$-40$
*Fish finder/Depth sounder 60$-100$
*Bluetooth wireless module (BlueSmirf) 60$
*Hydrophone 40$-250$

(here needed for purposes other than scientific measurement)

Currently being added:

*Arduino mini instead of regular 30$-40$
*Gyro-Tilt Sensor 65$-100$
*ZigBee Radios and 100$-200$
*Pressure Sensor coming soon...200$-400$
April 30, 2007, at 10:13 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 44-47:

'''''My Tsunameter Device'''''

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/tsunameter_protoc.png
April 30, 2007, at 10:09 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed line 35 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/table1.png
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/table2.png
Changed line 43 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/willemail.jpg
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/willemail1.jpg
April 30, 2007, at 10:07 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Deleted line 35:
April 30, 2007, at 10:05 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
April 30, 2007, at 10:04 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
April 30, 2007, at 10:03 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 29-30 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/wavelenght.jpg
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/wavelenght1.jpg
April 30, 2007, at 10:01 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 9-10 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/DART_II.jpg
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/DART_II2.jpg
April 30, 2007, at 10:00 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 9-10 from:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/DART_II_metric-page.jpg
to:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/DART_II.jpg
April 26, 2007, at 01:22 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
April 26, 2007, at 01:21 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 1-44:
'''TSUNAMETER SYSTEM'''

'''''Possible Causes of Tsunamis'''''

Tsunami waves are most often caused by seismic disturbances in the ocean, which abruptly push huge volumes of water out from the fault's center. Underwater landslides and even meteor impacts can set off tsunamis as well.

'''''The DART System (Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis)'''''

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/DART_II_metric-page.jpg

This complicated network of sensors elaborated and applied also by the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmosferic Administration) includes:

*Bottom Pressure Recorder
(BPR) including Digiquartz Broadband Depth Sensor, a computer, a data logger. This very well calibrated device records the pressure in deep water using Paroscientific's Digiquartz technology that revolves around crystal quartz resonators, a type of material that apparently very well responds to the changes in pressure at depth such as 1000 to 8000 meters.
http://www.paroscientific.com/

*Acoustic link to communicate to floating buoy

*Satellite telecommunication
(GPS Iridium)
http://www.iridium.com/corp/iri_corp-understand.asp

*Optional ADCP or CTD

'''''Tsunami detection algorythm'''''

The tsunami detection algorithm in the cages software works first by estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/wavelenght.jpg

'''''Goals'''''

The engeneer's design goal and expense goal of under 250.000$.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/table1.png

'''''My design goals'''''

The original question i faced while reading and researching extensively on the Tsunami analysis and esotheric attempts to detect it when still in deep ocean, was:
Could I if not replicate, at least mimik the 250.000$ system with a 250$ budget?

And Oceanographer William Halloran was the perfect place to start:

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/willemail.jpg
April 26, 2007, at 01:20 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Deleted lines 0-34:
'''TSUNAMETER SYSTEM'''

'''''Possible Causes of Tsunamis'''''

Tsunami waves are most often caused by seismic disturbances in the ocean, which abruptly push huge volumes of water out from the fault's center. Underwater landslides and even meteor impacts can set off tsunamis as well.

'''''The DART System (Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis)'''''

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/DART_II_metric-page.jpg

This complicated network of sensors elaborated and applied also by the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmosferic Administration) includes:

*Bottom Pressure Recorder
(BPR) including Digiquartz Broadband Depth Sensor, a computer, a data logger. This very well calibrated device records the pressure in deep water using Paroscientific's Digiquartz technology that revolves around crystal quartz resonators, a type of material that apparently very well responds to the changes in pressure at depth such as 1000 to 8000 meters.
http://www.paroscientific.com/

*Acoustic link to communicate to floating buoy

*Satellite telecommunication
(GPS Iridium)
http://www.iridium.com/corp/iri_corp-understand.asp

*Optional ADCP or CTD

'''''Tsunami detection algorythm'''''

The tsunami detection algorithm in the cages software works first by estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/wavelenght.jpg

'''''Goals'''''

The engeneer's design goal and expense goal of under 250.000$.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/table1.png
April 26, 2007, at 01:17 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 1-35:
'''TSUNAMETER SYSTEM'''

'''''Possible Causes of Tsunamis'''''

Tsunami waves are most often caused by seismic disturbances in the ocean, which abruptly push huge volumes of water out from the fault's center. Underwater landslides and even meteor impacts can set off tsunamis as well.

'''''The DART System (Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis)'''''

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/DART_II_metric-page.jpg

This complicated network of sensors elaborated and applied also by the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmosferic Administration) includes:

*Bottom Pressure Recorder
(BPR) including Digiquartz Broadband Depth Sensor, a computer, a data logger. This very well calibrated device records the pressure in deep water using Paroscientific's Digiquartz technology that revolves around crystal quartz resonators, a type of material that apparently very well responds to the changes in pressure at depth such as 1000 to 8000 meters.
http://www.paroscientific.com/

*Acoustic link to communicate to floating buoy

*Satellite telecommunication
(GPS Iridium)
http://www.iridium.com/corp/iri_corp-understand.asp

*Optional ADCP or CTD

'''''Tsunami detection algorythm'''''

The tsunami detection algorithm in the cages software works first by estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/wavelenght.jpg

'''''Goals'''''

The engeneer's design goal and expense goal of under 250.000$.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/table1.png
April 26, 2007, at 01:16 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Deleted lines 0-34:
'''TSUNAMETER SYSTEM'''

'''''Possible Causes of Tsunamis'''''

Tsunami waves are most often caused by seismic disturbances in the ocean, which abruptly push huge volumes of water out from the fault's center. Underwater landslides and even meteor impacts can set off tsunamis as well.

'''''The DART System (Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis)'''''

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/DART_II_metric-page.jpg

This complicated network of sensors elaborated and applied also by the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmosferic Administration) includes:

*Bottom Pressure Recorder
(BPR) including Digiquartz Broadband Depth Sensor, a computer, a data logger. This very well calibrated device records the pressure in deep water using Paroscientific's Digiquartz technology that revolves around crystal quartz resonators, a type of material that apparently very well responds to the changes in pressure at depth such as 1000 to 8000 meters.
http://www.paroscientific.com/

*Acoustic link to communicate to floating buoy

*Satellite telecommunication
(GPS Iridium)
http://www.iridium.com/corp/iri_corp-understand.asp

*Optional ADCP or CTD

'''''Tsunami detection algorythm'''''

The tsunami detection algorithm in the cages software works first by estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/wavelenght.jpg

'''''Goals''''"

The engeneer's design goal and expense goal of under 250.000$.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/table1.png>
April 26, 2007, at 01:16 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 30-35:

'''''Goals''''"

The engeneer's design goal and expense goal of under 250.000$.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/table1.png>
April 26, 2007, at 01:14 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 25-29 from:
to:
'''''Tsunami detection algorythm'''''

The tsunami detection algorithm in the cages software works first by estimating the amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations and then testing these amplitudes against a threshold value.

http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/wavelenght.jpg
April 26, 2007, at 01:11 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 9-10:
http://itp.nyu.edu/~bp432/sensors/report/DART_II_metric-page.jpg
April 26, 2007, at 01:07 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 9-10 from:
This complicated network of sensors elaborated and applied also by the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmosferic Administration). It includes a submerible unit and a floating part. The key features of this system are:
to:
This complicated network of sensors elaborated and applied also by the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmosferic Administration) includes:
Changed line 17 from:
*Satellite telecommunication with Tsunami Warning Centers around the world
to:
*Satellite telecommunication
April 26, 2007, at 01:06 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 9-10 from:
This complicated network of sensors elaborated and applied also by the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmosferic Administration) includes:
to:
This complicated network of sensors elaborated and applied also by the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmosferic Administration). It includes a submerible unit and a floating part. The key features of this system are:
Changed lines 17-19 from:
*Satellite telecommunication
(GPS Iridium) http://www.iridium.com/corp/iri_corp-understand.asp
to:
*Satellite telecommunication with Tsunami Warning Centers around the world
(GPS Iridium)

http://www.iridium.com/corp/iri_corp-understand.asp
April 26, 2007, at 01:03 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 3-4 from:
'''''Possible Causes'''''
to:
'''''Possible Causes of Tsunamis'''''
Changed lines 9-10 from:
This complicated network of sensors includes:
to:
This complicated network of sensors elaborated and applied also by the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmosferic Administration) includes:
Changed lines 13-14 from:
to:
http://www.paroscientific.com/
Changed lines 18-19 from:
(GPS Iridium)
to:
(GPS Iridium) http://www.iridium.com/corp/iri_corp-understand.asp
Added lines 21-22:
April 26, 2007, at 12:42 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 3-4 from:
'''''Possible Causes''''
to:
'''''Possible Causes'''''
April 26, 2007, at 12:41 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Changed lines 3-4 from:
''''Possible Causes'''''
to:
'''''Possible Causes''''
April 26, 2007, at 12:41 AM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 1-19:
'''TSUNAMETER SYSTEM'''

''''Possible Causes'''''

Tsunami waves are most often caused by seismic disturbances in the ocean, which abruptly push huge volumes of water out from the fault's center. Underwater landslides and even meteor impacts can set off tsunamis as well.

'''''The DART System (Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis)'''''

This complicated network of sensors includes:

*Bottom Pressure Recorder
(BPR) including Digiquartz Broadband Depth Sensor, a computer, a data logger. This very well calibrated device records the pressure in deep water using Paroscientific's Digiquartz technology that revolves around crystal quartz resonators, a type of material that apparently very well responds to the changes in pressure at depth such as 1000 to 8000 meters.

*Acoustic link to communicate to floating buoy

*Satellite telecommunication
(GPS Iridium)

*Optional ADCP or CTD
April 25, 2007, at 09:08 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
April 25, 2007, at 09:08 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Deleted lines 0-1:
'''TSUNAMETER SYSTEM REPORT"'
April 25, 2007, at 09:07 PM by Benedetta Piantella -
Added lines 1-2:
'''TSUNAMETER SYSTEM REPORT"'