Chapter 6 – 2-D Design Skills
The Role of Graphics in an Exhibition:
-Graphics are integral part of any exhibition and show the storyline to visitors.
-Low budget shows or existing spaces tend to use graphics to support exhibition.
-Directional signs to draw visitors in are called wayfinding graphics.
-Graphic designers develop a hierarchy of signs of differing scales in a consistent style.
-The hierarchy includes large external signage, medium-sized area headings, subheadings and diminishes to object labels.
-Graphics should be clear, effective, imaginative, creative, consistent to maximize publicity.
-Keep scale in mind when designing for exhibition graphics. It works differently from print.
Approaches to Exhibition Graphics:
-When there is an imposed style of graphics (i.e. brand identity), the challenge is to create stimulating graphic work that enhance.
-Graphic designers have to make many fine detailed decisions regarding contextual graphics when there are no imposing styles.
Designing for Legibility:
-Relates to not only the size of typography, but also the environment in which the text is situated.
-Take into account location of text, lighting conditions, etc.
-Legibility of text is influenced by contrast between the text color and background.
-Check text legibility by printing out samples.
Designing for Readability:
-Some suggest the reading guidelines be readable by an average twelve year old person.
-Use The Ekarv guideline method for writing readable labels. The system addresses legibility and readability issues.
-Clear defined passages are easier to read than longer and denser ones.
-Visitors often skim the text and pick out shapes of individual words, so the sentence is often more readable in smaller quantity.
-Include facts that will resonate with viewers when possible:
1. Use simple language to express complexity.
2. Use normal spoken word order.
3. One main idea per line. Short and to the point.
4. Lines about 45 letters and text broken into short paragraphs of four to five lines.
5. Use active form of verbs and state subjects early in sentence.
6. Avoid complicated structure, hyphenating words, unnecessary wording.
7. Read text aloud and note natural pauses.
8. Adjust wording and punctuation to reflect rhythm of speech.
9. Discuss texts amongst each other.
10. Pin draft texts in final positions to assess effect.
11. Revise and refine.
12. Concentrate the meaning.
-Avoid long lines of text, especially at low level.
Reproducing Graphics Methods:
-Rubdown / dry transfer
-Digital photographic printing
-Graphics must be printed with inks resistant to weather and ultraviolet rays. Weather proof materials like PVC, aluminum, glass and stainless steel are good choices.
-Must be stable.
-Common at trade shows.
Chapter 7 – Lighting
How Lighting is Used in Exhibitions:
-Colored light, dramatic sequences with video projections, objects can be modelled with angled lights.
-Can create hierarchies and concentration.
The Human Eye:
-Lighting should be gradual, not sudden. The human eye takes time to adjust to lighting changes.
Surveying the Site:
-Daylight is very powerful compared with most artificial lighting.
-Strong sunlight may cast shadows and affect displays.
-Perform site surveys to ensure the best presentation.
-Daylight is normally excluded since the sun emits ultraviolet rays.
-Check for lighting infrastructure, lighting track or suitable downlights.
-Enquire about power supply and routing of cables.
The Lighting Plan:
-Plan may be demonstrated with a three-dimensional visual rendering generated by computer or sketch.
-Create tightly focused pool of light on the exhibit.
-The Wall-wash, widest beam spotlight available, enables designe to light a whole wall evenly.
-Can also use a single focused area of light to highlight a single display.
-Ambient light: light thrown onto walls creating an overall brightness
Accent lighting: object illuminated while surrounding is relatively dark.
Sparkle lighting: special colored or accented light intended to create a spectacle.
-Types of exhibit-focused light: spotlights, wall-wash and contoured spotlight.
-Ambient light is more comfortable than accent lighting.
-Some spaces require ambient lighting, such as areas for activities, interacting with mechanical devices, etc.
-Emphasizes the shape of a three-dimensional structure or area. Often used in nightclubs and bars.
-color temperature can create warm or cool effects.
-color rendering: describes how well lighting shows color on a material. 100 is excellent, 0 is bad.
-color filters and gels: can be added to spotlights to create effects.
Modeling a three-dimensional object:
-Use three point lighting to prevent flatness.
Lighting for Comfort:
-Be mindful of visitors’ age and physical conditions.
-Temperature, humidity, brightness can affect display objects.
Chapter 12 – Technical Drawings
The Purpose of Technical Drawings:
-Detailed drawings will unify and clarify different perceptions and understanding.
-Plan for safety and security requirements.
-Need to communicate clearly to contractors and suppliers.
-Convey complex structure in a clear manner.
Labels, Details and Notes:
-Plans are needed to show the positioning of the exhibits and how they relate to each other. This will minimize confusion and misunderstanding.
-Construction of an exhibit always reflects the quality and accuracy of the technical drawings.
-Always have explanatory notes and include specification for materials.
-Specific technical drawings are produced for specialists.
-Fire precautions, health and safety issues, structural issues have to be worked out and approved.
-Contractors quote on basis of a package of drawings and documentation. Drawings must show:
-Relationship of exhibition space to overall site
-Plan of exhibit space with all the exhibit areas
-Elevation and sections demonstrate vertical height
-detailed drawings of materials and surfaces
-material references and details of finishes
-ask suppliers to produce prototypes and create samples to ensure quality
-build library of samples to refer to
-Amendments must be marked and dated. Important to keep contractor noted.
-Record discussions and ideas on scale drawings.
-Don’t leave anything to chance. Always plan.
-Be extremely detailed and specific.