Category Archives: Hyper

Hypertext was a huge step forward in terms of user convenience and a more widespread accessibility. The use of hyperlinks allows multiple different sources of information or entertainment to be linked together in a way that makes our lives much easier. By taking away the need to be aware of specific URLs hypertext allows for a larger demographic to enjoy using a computer.

As time progresses it becomes easier for us to use computers and our computers start to require less and less input as they are being individualized to fit our needs.

Human thought as a whole is generally non-linear, with some individuals being further towards one side of the spectrum or the other. In regards to personal experience I generally find that thought processes can run independently and start or end regardless of the current thoughts at the forefront of my mind in a fashion that is very non-linear.

The very creation of modern URLs is a concession to computational accessibility, as the whole system of registrations and lookups for domain names allow for easier and less technical access to web servers than would otherwise be required if we still used IP addresses for navigation. Furthermore, URLs allow for computational accessibility by giving access to the massive amounts of processing and connection allowed for by internet infrastructures with very little processing overhead for the end user’s system.

Digitize Everything

I believe that my thinking is nonlinear because I don’t follow a straight line. When I’m reasoning, my thoughts are a little all over the place. My connections between concepts and ideas are a little weird sometimes and I don’t always take the quickest, straightest path to understanding things. I do get to the end, the end being understanding a concept or idea, but I when I’m thinking about things I get sidetracked and go around the concept before I can fully grasp it. Ideas that are more nebulous and unsure are times where thinking is nonlinear. However, in some cases, my thinking can be very linear. For example, when ideas are simple and straightforward or have a definitive answer, my mind goes from one step to the other in a straight line. This is because if a concept cannot be argued there is no need to struggle with it by thinking around it to understand. For example, math versus english. In math, there is one right answer that has no room for argument. My thinking is linear when I’m doing math because I do not have to struggle with deeper meaning and ideas. English is different because English requires an indepth look. Also, there is no correct answer. The answers of course have to be backed up by the text, subtext, or context, but there is so much more interpretation and room for deviation in English.

Hypertext is special because it neatly categorizes thinking. It allows one small phrase to be taken from anything online, like articles, and link to more information. So, hypertext is a bridge to a larger understanding because it can be used to provide more articles to substantiate the understanding of the first article. Hypertext is used to keep articles understandable but also allows them to be more concise because any extraneous explanation can be neatly included in a separate link so that viewers that already know this information or believe it is not important to their understanding and enjoyment can avoid the extra time that it takes to view what is linked. Furthermore, hypertext is like a title, it can give information about what it is going to share without giving away too much, and is usually more informational than a title because it is not trying to sell you anything. Titles are made to interest readers so they are not as informational as most hypertext is.

Anything online is already accessible by URL, as long as you know how to find the URL. Things are already computational accessible, but it is hard sometimes because to find a certain URL is impossible without searching it up. Therefore, search engines are the way to make everything computational accessible by URL because engines like Google allow users to search up keywords and find URLs that are relevant to what the person is trying to find.


I believe part of our thoughts is linear, while the other part is non-linear. According to their definition, linear thoughts means that the thoughts that are constant. This kind of thoughts are usually required in solving math questions: starting the thought from the condition, proceeding the thought with knowledge, and finally reaching the result. However, this linear way of thinking doesn’t work in a lot of areas; in fact, most of the time we need non-linear thoughts. For example, when you are generating ideas for an essay, you are actually creating links between everything that you have read, feel, and experienced. These kind of tasks, writing an essay or creating an artwork, can’t be done in a linear way, because our brain is jumping around in our memory. This kind of non-linear way of thinking happens in computers as well. RAM(random access memory) is the most important way of storing data in computers.


The digitalize of everything allows the huge data to happen. The passage talked about how huge pools of digital content increases understanding. It gives the example of google translation and Siri. The huge data is really a big deal right now for the creating Artificial Intelligence. Someone tried to mimic the evolution of human brains on computers but failed. The huge database is like a shortcut to artificial intelligence who has the access to every dialogue recorded. All the AI needs to do is to choose the best answer.


Human thinking is anything but linear. Making decisions as simple as what to eat for dinner can sometimes leave us stuck. We consider multiple choices and their consequences before making our decisions. My thought process is typically very skewed. I could start a task just for my mind to wander in every direction except the task at hand.

Hypertext has revolutionized convenience. Anything we want can be accessed with the click of a button-it’s almost too easy. Instead of flipping through book pages at a library or web pages in a computer, so much www information is already perfectly categorized and waiting to be found. Hypertext represents linear thinking. Every hyperlink is direct and straightforward, ready to take u from one place to the other, already predecided and predictable. Unlike human thinking, there is no exterior consideration of the consequences and outcomes of clicking the hypertext.

In a way, everything online is already accessible by URL. Every time we click the “enter” key or a button, said key or button are connected to a link to bring us to the website or place we are trying to arrive at. A way to make URLs more accessible is making technology and technological knowledge more accessible and easy to learn.

HYPER-reading response

In the reading, “The Digitize Everything” (editorial for the Economics), the writer mainly argues about the importance and potential power of digitization in current century. The writer believes that digitization is worthwhile for people today to explore and utilize more deeply. By the end of this reading, I find myself nodding in agreement with what the writer has to say, because the writer has developed a series of strong argument and reasoning in support of his argument.


The key to a successful argument is clear and logic reasoning in the passage. First, the writer gives the audience a powerful example, the Waze, to show the efficiency in production produced by digitization. The example given not only helped the reader to be more knowledgeable about the term, “digitization,” but also provides the reader a sense about the power of digitization, in the way that the author presents one of the most vital feature of digitization, which is non-rival. Based on this, the author argued that by digitizing without marginal production cost, people could produce more and even unlimited output when using limited resources. However, the author also came up with a question, that will innovations be used up. Instead of simply diving right in, the author presents both sides of the issue. First, the author points out that some believe the innovation will be used up based on the limited resources people have. Then, the author disproves this point by stating that innovation is not to create something completely new and has not existed before, but to recombine existing things and find what people has not found before. (p18)  In this way, the writer shows that repeating the process of recombination allows innovation to grow up to an infinite number. Thus, the innovation is hardly to be used up. By the same time, the author also points out limits and disadvantages of the infinite number of innovations, meaning that it takes a long time to find valuable ones that could improve people’s current living standards. Therefore, the author advocates the audience to explore more about the digitization and highlights that it is in-need to do so as well.


What interested me about the reading this week is the constant acknowledgment the technological advancement is on a very steep upward trajectory. I don’t think that upward trajectory is linear, because progress as a human species isn’t linear. But there is no denying that advancement is going up and will keep going up. I’m sort of bewildered at this fact, and it is also kind of intimidating. I know that my thinking on this subject isn’t linear as well. I appreciate all the technological advancements that have been made, but I also don’t like how fas the industry changes. It makes me wary about how I will fare in the job market in the future, and if what I am currently learning will help me at all. This worry can stretch across different fields, but it is especially glaring in the technological industry. What are the next steps that the industry is taking? Do I need to become talented at predicting these things to make sure I can navigate the market at that time? Will I have to be in a perpetual state of worry my whole life, to only settle for something less volatile? Is the next big race in technology going to have to do with hypertext and making information related to what someone searched even more accessible? I didn’t even know it was a thing before this assignment, and that worries me. How much do I need to predict to stay on top of the industry, to prove my worth? The trajectory isn’t stopping, and it seems like it’s going to pierce straight through me and leave me wounded and lost as it moves on without me.

Digitizing everything

I am definitely not a liner thinker. One second I could be thinking about getting some dunkin donuts coffee after school, then random thought about kids choice award winner Willem Defoe and the next thing you know I am writing a screenplay about Willem Defoe waking up as a Donut and becoming the Donut Man. This type of stream of consciousness is what makes me and billions of humans unique. Random events and topics popping in and out of the consciousness is what makes creativity a beautiful thing. And Hypertext is great for that reason. Sometimes, we don’t need to get to point A before we get to point B, sometimes we just need to get to point B without any stops and Hyper text is great for that.  And since the plan is to digitize everything, Hypertext is the best way to go. Although I don’t think everything can be digitized, its still out best bet.

To be Creative, to Not be Creative.

Alexa, play “What Left Brain, Right Brain” by Bo Burnham.

I have both linear and non-linear thinking. Matter of fact, everyone has linear and non-linear thinking. Linear thinking is more towards logic, while non-linear is more towards creativity. We may use one more than the other depending on the task we need to accomplish, but we do have these two ways.

Our brain is divided into two hemispheres – the left and the right. Despite their contrasting sides, these two don’t work independently.

Say that you unfortunately sever the connection between the two parts of you brain. There wouldn’t necessarily be a HUGE disconnect  but only an impairment due to the nerve fiber connections. Luckily, your brain will still function, because of its learning capabilities.

Whenever we are learning things, we always need to back track and think about what we just learned. We may also need to discuss things with a peer or advisor when needed to do so. Or we may have an upcoming project on the topic. Thus, we have the left brain and the right brain.

Left brain and linear thinking go hand in hand for they both are in charge of your logical thinking and sequencing. So, this side is generally good for mathematics and problem solving. Right brain and non-linear thinking go hand in hand for they both are in charge of your creativity and imagination. So, this side is overall great for the arts and visualizations.

Because of the interconnectivity of the two sides, it’s impossible to say that you use one side over the other.  You are constantly using both. Although, functionalities of both sides may vary person to person depending on the situation at hand.

our minds are one big hyperlink.

I think our thinking process is anything but linear. Every thought is in succession with the previous and in reference to something you thought of long ago. It’s almost like a file directory; it opens the file from the destination in which it was saved – but in order to open it the computer must process the language the file was written in and follow procedure until the file is opened. Each thought is a conglomeration of different, previous, thoughts and therefore it jumps back in different instances of time to complete your intended thought.

Hypertext is a luxury that, if eradicated today, would make us lose our minds. We rely on it so heavily that in order to write this blog post I had to click on six different hyperlinks to get here. I’m referring to hyperlinks as not only sets of text that are linked to a webpage, but also to various functions. Such as opening Safari or clicking “log-in”. I think we’ve reached a point where almost everything we do on a computer can be seen as a hyperlink. From opening or closing a tab to rendering out an entire animation sequence. It has simply just become a necessity.

Our thinking and computers are pretty similarly designed I believe and I also think that that’s done purposefully. We refer back to memories and thoughts the same way computers refer back to code and file directories. We built our computers to be like our minds so that they become extensions of it. We place some thoughts on our hardrives that we can’t, as efficiently, store in our head and vice versa.

spider web

I think my thinking is non-linear in many of the times. Though I have the chances to drain into one question and think for a long time, in most of the cases my thought jumps around from one topic to another (and waste a lot times in exams). I think in some way this is very similar to the hypertext reading: you went into one article for A, and there’s a term B that you are not farmiliar with then you clicked the hyper text of it. Then you moves to B’s explnation where C attracts you. This would also happens if your reading books or newspaper, but the hypertext strongly increased the frequency.

In that case, there is the possiblity to build everything with a URL. By infinite hypertext you can make everything sharing simliarities connected  with hypertext. Since there’s nothing on the world that are totally unrelated to the others(When this happen, it becomes realted by the characteristic of “unrelated”), you can include everything then.

About URL

I believe I think partly linear but generally non-linear because I have to deal with multiple things in my life. Another evidence for my non-linear thoughts is I read a lot of hypertext which is non-linear. The convenience it led to users to access resources is what makes it special. It is like a tree with countless branches, or digital highways. The way to build it is to preserve information in stations and build doors with keys. Since each door can only be opened by one key, the URL can direct bring users to jump into the station. The progress is really like to build a highway between cities, which is point to point.

Data, Consumers, and Choice

Since we are able to completely dictate the nature of our blog posts, I will be focusing my blog post on topics that were not referenced in the provided question.

I was a bit startled when I read the article. I knew that data had become the new currency in technology and some would even claim that it would become the new “oil”; however, I never really conceptualized what the influence of data gathering and analysis looks like in terms of businesses.

The reading ends with a narrative about Belgium’s Grimbergn and their need to rebrand. The company decided to use data rather than a design team to rebrand the packaging of their beer. By creating a mathematical model, the company was able to discover the best attributes the branding needed to possess to target consumers. The brand design the model created had a 3.5% increase in approval rating.

This kind of data driven targeted marketing occurs in America as well. Not too long ago, Target had done a similar marketing tactic. Target discovered that women tend to remain faithful to a few brands in their lives, but are more likely to change to a new a brand when experiencing a life changing event (such as pregnancy). Thus, in order to onboard new lifelong customers, Target decided to create a model which would use an individuals’ search history and purchase history to determine if they recently became pregnant. For example, if a woman started to purchase magnesium and other prenatal vitamins, the model would identify them as newly pregnant. If determined to be pregnant, Target would begin to send the individual coupons for diapers, cribs, etc. Of course when this marketing tactic became known to public, Target was heavily criticized and as result, Target decided to hide its targeted marketing by still sending targeted coupons but disguising the coupons along with other “general” coupons (like for towels and hand soap).

While it is now fairly known that marketing and ads are targeted to consumers through data, the idea that soon products will be branded based off consumer data is a bit more horrifying. I believe it is because I would like to think that while marketing may manipulate me to purchase a product, I get to determine the quality and thus, get to “choose” whether or not I will purchase it again. Tortilla chips are a great example of this. Sure, certain branding and marketing may sway us to purchase certain chips, but in the end, if they do not meet our taste needs, we will simply purchase another brand.

However, if a product was branded to target me as a consumer, it could blind me to the existence of other products. As a result, I would never reflect on the quality and thus, lose my agency as a consumer. I think I can best explain this “product blindness” through a narrative:

I have always purchased pink Venus disposable razors. I just knew that these were the razors that were best for women. But why would I think that?


The razors are packaged to put that exact idea in my head. By designing the razors to be pink and visually pleasing, Venus targets consumers that socialized feminine and in turn most likely women. Yet, their most important branding decision was to name their company Venus. The name Venus has strong ties to femininity and empowerment. Its competitors have names such as “Bic” and “Schick”– names that feel masculine. Thus, the decision for me to purchase Venus was already made for me. I am a woman that likes to feel strong and good about myself. As I scan through the products in the aisle, only one product makes me feel that way: Venus Razors. However, I have never once considered if another product would be better in quality. I have never thought to pick up a Bic razor and in all honestly, I somehow created a classism with razors and viewed Bic razors are inferior. The strangest and maybe more eery part is, as you can see, no where on the package does it say these razors are meant for women.

I have blindly consumed Venus Razors for a little less than a decade. Thus, I would like to think that I would be able to try out the product, see the quality, and determine if I will continue to purchase it, but as you can see by Venus Razors narrative, that is simply not true. Our consumption choices can be predetermined by companies. They can choose not only to target us as consumers but subtly blind us from other options. One could argue that I am a woman, and like what Target discovered, am less likely to change my consumption choices so it makes sense why I have never left Venus. However, I have changed the kind of tortilla chips I like every few months based off my taste preferences at that time and my favorite clothing brands change on my current fashion icons.

Thus, I do think data analytics is powerful and has amazing potential for innovation. However, I am worried about it in the context of businesses and I do think there needs to be regulation in place to prevent mass corporate manipulation. What will the future of consumption be? What will the effects of this kind of predetermined consumption be on culture and overall society? It is scary to ponder those questions and hope that a more critical discussion starts on data analytics rather than the one the article had which was “digitize everything”, because clearly that is not the best idea.

Nonlinear Thinking + Digitization

I like to think that I’m fairly non-linear in my thinking, or that I at least strive to be non-linear. One of the basic aspects of this brand of thinking, I believe, is being flexible and pursuing a web of possibilities rather than sticking to a single, rigid plan. When it comes to my creative process especially, I’ll develop the rough idea for an illustration or piece of writing or any other project, then open up around 20 tabs to research a variety of ways in which I can go about getting to that end result, or another result entirely. I allow myself to bounce around in the headspace, be influenced along the way, and respond to changes. Linear thinking tends to put me in a rut. When I try to make myself follow specific steps, I spend too much time thinking about how to adhere to the structure, and I get stuck in a rut.

Open source and digitization, then, is very valuable to me and to all of us. It creates for us the web from which we pull inspiration. It is truly through the 20 tabs of walk cycle tutorials and coding challenges, and infinite paths of digital information, that we can amalgamate ideas into something new, bold, and potentially important.

Digitize E V E R Y T H I N G!

The reading clearly breaks down that:

“Digitization, in other words, is the work of turning all kinds of information and media- text, sounds, photos, video, data from instruments and sensors, and so on- into the ones and zeros that are the native language of computers and their kin”.

The listed “information and media” all have something in common. They are all tangible, easily understood, and familiar to us in presentation. We all know what the concept of a video is and how it is approached. We all know what the purpose of a photo can be and how to capture them. These ideas make sense to digitalize. I would not think twice about it. But, what about making intangible things digitalized? Things that are abstract, such as emotions or memories or dreams or even smells?

I highly recommend this show “Black Mirror”. It’s usually on Netflix.

These questions remind me of the show Black Mirror. Multiple times within the series, memories and consciousnesses are digitalized. Someone’s whole life experience can exist on a small hard drive. It made me appreciate memories in a whole new light. I do not think we are close to figuring out how to do this type of stuff using technology, but I can see how this could be so beneficial. The ability to have a digitalization of emotions or memories will create a new level of empathy and understanding. As the reading describes digitalization as “free, perfect, and instant,” people will no longer misinterpret one’s feelings. They will get to literally take a walk in their shoes and experience their feelings in a certain situation. This can solve a lot of ignorant behavior, especially in this capitalistic society. People judge other based off class and race and usually don’t take the steps to interact with them. If there was a tool to digitalize racism or sexism or ageism (etc.), others can see how impactful these systematic oppressions are and possibly want to work towards fixing these issues more.


Linear & Non Linear Thinking

Personally, I think I am not an exact linear thinker. But it is true that linear thinking always appears in my daily life. People like to interpret things simply based on the evidence they got, without considering other factors that may also play a role. Linear thinking is usually straightforward and clear. In the subject of math or physics, things happen exactly as it should be, so linear thinking will be very useful. However, in other fields such as history or psychology, there is no absolute connection between one factor and one result. My middle and high school teachers always tell us to consider things from different aspects in order to avoid linear thinking.


Of course, computers are a linear thinker. Or in another word, they won’t consider factors outside the data we give to them. Hypertext is a representation of linear-thinking. Once you click the link, it will lead you directly into the page. It is useful and convenient, which doesn’t require a lot of thinking process to use. Even though we need non-linear thinking in our real life, we also need things that are clear and easy to use in our online world.


Although a link is linear-thinking, I don’t think the collection of URL is linear. If someone searches something on the internet, there will be millions of URL for him/her to choose. There will be also a lot of related information which may not exactly for the word he/she search. Search engines are not linear thinkers.

Follow the Path

If I think something, I’ll usually pursue what I’m thinking. I’ll look into the topic, talk about it, do what I’m thinking about, etc…

In that sense, I believe I am a linear thinker. If I think about something I’ll find a way of pursuing it further, I’m honestly not even sure if I can describe any other way of thinking.

I feel that computers themselves, while not being living beings, are also linear thinking. You give an input, they give an output, there is no in-between. I also believe that this is just beneficial in general, it allows us to think and use computers as a thinking tool. An example of this could be the use of URLs. URLs also benefit a linear way of thinking, by a simple click, they can provide you an article, a download, a video to something related to what the URL implied to you. In a way, through URLs we basically have most information given to us with ease, we can go into a search engine (Google is the best) and look up a topic we’re looking into, after we input that, we can get thousands of URLs related to that singular topic, providing us information, downloads, videos, text posts on what we wanted to know. I feel like this is one of the most useful tools we have on the internet, and that I personally don’t see anything additional that it would need, I believe that if it were NOT linear that it would be more of an obstacle than anything. It would make it harder for us to immediately access the info we crave, and perhaps we would lose interest before we can even obtain that information.

I’m interested to see if any of my classmates feel differently, but personally as a “Linear Thinker”, URLs are such a great tool that help us out.