Week 6 Connectivity

Week 6 Presentation: Here

Class Notes

Internet of Things

Key elements

  • Embedded Devices – Things
  • An internet Service – Internet
  • A gateway device
  • Apps

Categories

Connected Home

  • Google Home/Amazon Echo
  • Thermostats – Nest
  • Lighting – Philips Hue

Connected Cars

  • Tesla
  • Car2go

Urban System

  • Citi Bike
  • Jump Bikes

Medical / Wellness Devices

  • Bathroom scales – Withings
  • Blood pressure monitors – GlowCaps

Connected Wearables

How to connect

  • Internet: Local and outside networks
  • Thing: Microcontroller + input + output

Architectures

  • Dedicated gateway
  • Smartphone as gateway
  • Direct internet connection
  • Device to device connections
  • Service to service connections

Networks

  1. Cellular Network
    • Pros:
      • Direct access to internet, no gateway needed
    • Cons:
      • High power consumption
    • Example: Apple Watch
      • Network: Bluetooth & Cellular
      • Architecture: Direct internet connection
  2. Wifi
    • Pros:
      • Stable connection after setup
    • Cons:
      • High power consumption
      • Limited distance range
    • Example: Ewlet smart sock
      • Network: Bluetooth LE & Wifi
      • Architecture: Dedicated gateway
  3. Bluetooth Classic
    • Pros:
      • Stable connection after paired
      • Medium power consumption
    • Cons:
      • Limited distance range
      • Pairing needed every time of usage
    • Example: Ewlet smart sock
      • Network: Bluetooth Classic
      • Architecture: Smartphone as gateway
  4. Bluetooth Low Energy
    • Pros:
      • No pairing needed
      • Low energy consumption
    • Cons:
      • Specific app needed
    • Example: Misfit Smart Wristband
      • Network: Bluetooth LE
      • Architecture: Smartphone as gateway
  5. ZigBee
    • Pros:
      • Mesh network protocol 
    • Cons:
      • Not currently compatible mobile OS
    • Example: Philips Hue Light
      • Network: ZigBee + Ethernet
      • Architecture:  Dedicated gateway
  6. RFID / NFC
    • Pros:
      • No power supply needed (passive only)
      • Small and thin
    • Cons:
      • Short distance range
      • Limited function
    • Example: Disney MagicBand
      • Network: NFC
      • Architecture: N/A
  7. Other Proprietary Radio Frequencies

How to choose

  • Distance
  • Power consumption
  • Quantity of devices
  • Gateway or not

Potentials & Limitations

  • Wearables vs Things vs Screens
  • Smart?
  • Stability of network
  • Security & privacy

Assignment

  1. Turn one of the previous wearable projects into a wireless one. Project show & tell on April 15.
  2. Check out a Arduino MKR1010 from Pcomp Closet for the next class (April 1st). Follow the instructions to update the firmware prior to the class.