Bollards are short posts, usually with downlights in them, for path and area lighting
Chandeliers and Pendants are lights that hang from a ceiling chain or cord. Chandeliers usually have multiple arms and decorative features, while pendants usually have a single source and/or discrete body.
Cove lights are lights hidden behind shielded a ledge moulding, generally used for bouncing light off a ceiling or wall.
Downlights are any lights that are pointed down, usually from a ceiling, though can also be from another location, like step lighting, or bollards.
Flood lights have a broad beam and soft edge to them, to light a broad area. They are not focusable, and they are generally used outdoors.
Floor and Table Lamps are what their name implies: discrete lights designed to sit on a table or floor.
Sconces are mounted on walls, and generally reflect their light off the wall itself. Sconces can have downlight and uplight portions as well.
Soffit lights are cove lights mounted in a lowered section of ceiling, called a soffit
Task Lights are any lights that are focused on an area where work will be done. Desk lamps can be task lights, and so can downlights in the ceiling of a factory. As opposed to accent lights, path lights, or ambient lights.
Torchiere lights are tall lamps with an uplight on the top, usually shaped like a shallow bowl, suggestive of a torch.
Uplights are any lights that are pointed up, usually from sconce, cove, or torchiere, though can also be from another location.
Wash lights are lights used to cover a broad flat surface, like a wall.