This page explains the basic pin functions that most microcontrollers share, and offers some tips for switching from one microcontroller to another. Since the tutorials on this site are all written with the Arduino Uno in mind, and students may be using other controllers, you may need to know how to “convert” a tutorial from the controller it’s written for to your own controller. In order to get the most out of it, you should know something about electrical circuits, and what a microcontroller is and what it can do. This video might help: Hardware functions in a microcontroller
A typical microcontroller can have between 6 and 60 pins on it, to which you’re expected to attach power connections, input and output connections, and communications connections. Every microcontroller has different configurations for its pins, and often one pin will have more than one function. This combining of functions on one pin is called pin multiplexing.
Every microcontroller has names for the pins specific to its hardware, but the Arduino application programming interface (API) provides a set of names for pins and their functions that should work across all microcontrollers that are programmable with the API. So, for example, A0 will always be the analog input pin 0, whether you’re on an Uno, 101, MKR1000, or other Arduino-compatible board. When you connect to the pin with the same function on another board, your code should operate the same, even though the physical layout of pins is different.
Every board has an operating voltage that affects its pins as well. The operating voltage, which is the same as the voltage of the GPIO pins, is labeled below. If you’re connecting a component to a board with a lower voltage than the component, you’ll need to do some level shifting.
Here’s a diagram of how the Arduino Uno’s pins are multiplexed:
And here’s the diagram for the Arduino 101:
And here’s the diagram for the MKR1000:
Finally, here’s the pin diagram for the Adafruit Feather M0 Proto. It should be more or less the same for the other Feather M0 boards, but check the documentation for your board to be sure.
In order to make sense of all of this, it helps to know the general functions of a microcontroller. There are a few common functions:
Power: Every microcontroller will have connections for power (often labeled Vcc, Vdd, or Vin) and ground. A bare microcontroller will have only those, but modules like the Arduino, the Raspberry Pi, and others also have voltage regulators and other components on board. On these, it’s common to see an unregulated voltage input (Vin) and a regulated voltage output (5V and 3.3V on the Uno, for example).
Clock: Every microcontroller needs a clock. The bare microcontroller chip usually has two pins for this. On a module, the clock is usually built onto the board, and the pins are not exposed.
General Purpose Input and Output (GPIO): Most pins on a microcontroller can operate as either a digital input or digital output.
Hardware Interrupts: Many microcontrollers have a subset of their GPIO pins attached to hardware interrupt circuits. A hardware interrupt can interrupt the flow of a program when a given pin changes its state, so you can read it immediately. Some higher level functions like asynchronous serial and PWM sometimes use these interrupts. They’re also good for very responsive reading of digital inputs.
Analog Input (ADC): Not all microcontrollers have an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), but those that do have a number of pins connected to it and act as inputs to the ADC. If there are analog inputs, include analog reference pin as well, that tells the microcontroller what the default high voltage of the ADC is.
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM): Few microcontrollers have a true analog voltage output (though the MKR1000 does), but most have a set of pins connected to an internal oscillator that can produce a pseudo-analog voltage using PWM. This is how the analogWrite() function in Arduino works.
Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART): Asynchronous serial communication is managed by a Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter, or UART, inside the processor. The UART pins are usually attached to internal hardware interrupts that can interrupt the program flow when new serial data arrives, so you never miss a byte. It’s possible to manage serial communication in software alone, but at high speeds, you’ll see more errors.
Synchronous Serial: SPI and I2C: Most microcontrollers also have dedicated modules in the processor to handle the two most common forms of synchronous serial communication.
The Serial-Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus has four dedicated pins: Master In, Slave Out (MISO); Master Out, Slave In (MOSI); Serial Clock (SCK) and Chip Select (CS). Many miccrocontrollers are programmed via SPI through an In-Circuit Serial Programming header (ICSP) as well.
The Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) bus has two pins: Serial Data (SDA) and Serial Clock (SCL).
Reset: All microcontrollers have a pin which resets the program. Usually you take this pin low to reset the controller.
IORef: this is the operating voltage of the board. The Uno and 101 have this pin so that shields can read this voltage to adjust their own output voltages as needed. Not all shields have this functionality.